As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 27, 2022
Registration No. 333-



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 

                          
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
                           

ENTERA BIO LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
                          

State of Israel
 (State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Kiryat Hadassah
Minrav Building - Fifth Floor
Jerusalem, Israel 9112002
Tel: +972-2-532-7151
(Address, including zip code, and telephone
number, including area code, of
Registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
Not Applicable
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
Entera Bio Ltd.
24 Gibson St
Cambridge, MA 02138
Tel +1-617-605-9650

 (Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

With copies to:

Drew M. Altman
Greenberg Traurig, P.A.
333 S.E. 2nd Avenue, Suite 4400
Miami, Florida 33131
Phone: (305) 579-0500
Fax: (305) 961-5589
Tomer Farkash, Adv.
Herzog Fox & Neeman
Herzog Tower, 6 Yitzhak Sadeh Street
Tel-Aviv 6777506, Israel
Tel: +972-3-692-2020
Fax: +972-3-696-6464

                          

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.
 
If only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐
 
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.
 
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
 
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
 
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
 
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer
 
Accelerated filer
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 

 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
 
                          

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine. 
 


EXPLANATORY NOTE
 
This registration statement contains two prospectuses:
 

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale of up to $100.0 million of the registrant’s ordinary shares, debt securities, warrants, rights and units comprising any combination of these securities; and
 

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale of up to 5,000,000 ordinary shares that may be issued and sold under an Amended and Restated At Market Issuance Sales Agreement dated May 27, 2022, between the registrant and B. Riley Securities, Inc. (the “Sales Agreement”).
 
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus.
 
The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The ordinary shares that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $100.0 million of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the Sales Agreement, any portion of the capacity included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus.
 

 
The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and we are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MAY 27, 2022
 
 
PROSPECTUS
 
$100,000,000
Ordinary Shares, Debt Securities, Warrants, Rights and Units
 
 
ENTERA BIO LTD.
 


We may offer from time to time, in one or more offerings, ordinary shares, senior debt securities, subordinated debt securities, warrants, rights and units (collectively, the “securities”). The aggregate initial offering price of the securities that we may offer and sell under this prospectus will not exceed $100.0 million.
 
We may offer and sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in different series, at times, in amounts, at prices and on terms to be determined at or prior to the time of each offering. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.
 
The securities covered by this prospectus may be offered through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers. The names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any, will be included in a supplement to this prospectus. For general information about the distribution of securities offered, please see “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 16. 
 
Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “ENTX”. As of April 19, 2022, the aggregate market value of our outstanding ordinary shares held by non-affiliates was approximately $71.4 million based on 28,809,923 outstanding ordinary shares, of which approximately 24,198,756 ordinary shares were held by non-affiliates. We have not offered any of our ordinary shares pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on, and includes, the date of this prospectus.
 
Investing in our securities involves risks. See “RISK FACTORS” beginning on page 2 for information you should consider before investing in our securities.
 
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
 
The date of this prospectus is           , 2022.


 
TABLE OF CONTENTS


 
1
1
2
3
5
6
7
16
18
19
20
20



ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
 
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf process, we may, from time to time, sell the securities described in this prospectus from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you only with a general description of the securities we may offer. We will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain additional or more specific information about the terms of a particular offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with additional information incorporated herein by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference” before deciding to invest in any of the securities being offered.
 
This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits thereto. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and a prospectus supplement, if any, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement, provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later datefor example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplementthe statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
 
We have not authorized any other person to provide you with information different from or in addition to that included in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We are not making an offer to sell the securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of those documents.
 
In this prospectus, the terms “Entera,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” and “our company” refer to Entera Bio Ltd and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires.
 
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
 
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Accordingly, we are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s website is www.sec.gov.
 
We make available free of charge on or through our website, www.enterabio.com, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with or otherwise furnish it to the SEC.
 
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), relating to the securities offered under this prospectus. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. If a document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, we refer you to the copy of the document that has been filed. Each statement in this prospectus relating to a document filed as an exhibit is qualified in all respects by the filed exhibit. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement for free at www.sec.gov. The registration statement and the documents referred to below under “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” are also available on our website, www.enterabio.com.
 
Information contained on or accessible through our website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus and does not constitute a part hereof.

1

 
RISK FACTORS
 
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to purchase our securities, you should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on March 8, 2022 under the heading “Item 1A. Risk Factors”, any updates to those risk factors contained in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K and the other information contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement, as updated by those subsequent filings with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated herein by reference. These risks could materially affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and could cause the value of our securities to decline in value, in which case you may lose all or part of your investment. For more information, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”
 
2

 
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This prospectus contains “forward-looking statements,” as that term is defined under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (“PSLRA”), Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).  Various statements in this report are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the PSLRA and other U.S. Federal securities laws. In addition, historic results of scientific research and clinical and preclinical trials do not guarantee that the conclusions of future research or trials would not be different, and historic results referred to in this prospectus may be interpreted differently in light of additional research and clinical and preclinical trial results. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our management’s current expectations and future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. Forward-looking statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this report regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. These statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and are based on information currently available to our management. Words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplates,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “will,” “would,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” or the negative of these terms and similar expressions or words, identify forward-looking statements. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in our forward-looking statements. These factors include those described in “Item 1A-Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on March 8, 2022. Meaningful factors which could cause actual results to differ include, but are not limited to:
 

the scope, progress and costs of developing our product candidates such as EB613 for Osteoporosis and EB612 for Hypoparathyroidism, including without limitation any changes to the design of the Phase 3 clinical trial of EB613;
 

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, capital requirements, the sufficiency of our cash resources and the need for additional financing;
 

our ability to raise additional funds on commercially reasonable terms, including via our at the market program;
 

our ability to develop, advance product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical studies such as our Phase 2 clinical trial of EB613 in osteoporosis;
 

our reliance on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and on third-party suppliers to supply or produce our product candidates;
 

our interpretation of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) feedback and guidance and how such guidance may impact our clinical development plans, specifically our ability to utilize the 505(b)(2) pathway for the development and potential approval of EB613 and any other product candidates we may develop;
 

our expectations regarding licensing, business transactions and strategic collaborations, including our ongoing collaboration with Amgen;
 

our ability to use and expand our drug delivery technology to additional product candidates;
 

our operation as a development stage company with limited operating history and a history of operating losses and our ability to fund our operations going forward;
 

our ability to continue as a going concern absent access to sources of liquidity;
 

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates;
 

our competitive position, especially with respect to Forteo® and other products on the market or in development for the treatment of osteoporosis;
 
3



our ability to establish and maintain development and commercialization collaborations;
 

any potential commercial launch of current or future product candidates, and the timing, cost or other aspects of such commercialization;
 

our ability to manufacture and supply sufficient amounts of material to support our clinical trials and any potential future commercial requirements;
 

the safety and efficacy of therapeutics marketed by competitors that are targeted toward indications for which we are developing product candidates;
 

the size of any market we may target and the adoption of our product candidates, if approved, by physicians and patients;
 

our ability to obtain, maintain and protect our intellectual property and operate our business without infringing misappropriating or otherwise violating any intellectual property rights of others;
 

our ability to retain key personnel and recruit additional qualified personnel;
 

the possibility that competing products or technologies may make any product candidates we may develop and commercialize or our oral delivery technology obsolete;
 

the pricing and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;
 

our ability to develop a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure, if any;
 

our ability to manage growth; and
 

the duration and severity of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the actions that may be required to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, and its impact on our operations and workforce, including our research and development and clinical trials.
 
All forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We caution investors not to rely too heavily on the forward-looking statements we make or that are made on our behalf. Except as required by applicable law, we are under no duty, and expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in any annual, quarterly or current reports that we may file with the SEC.

4


ABOUT ENTERA BIO LTD.
 
The Company
 
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of orally delivered macromolecule therapeutics for use in areas with significant unmet medical need where adoption of injectable therapies is limited due to cost, convenience and compliance challenges for patients. Our current strategy for our lead product candidates is to use our technology to develop an oral formulation of human parathyroid hormone (1-34), or PTH, which has been approved in the United States in injectable form for over a decade. Our lead oral PTH product candidates are EB613 for the treatment of osteoporosis and EB612 for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism.
 
Corporate Information
 
Our principal and registered office is located at Kiryat Hadassah Minrav Building - Fifth Floor, Jerusalem, Israel, and our telephone number is +972-2-532-7151. Our corporate website is located at www.enterabio.com. The information on our website shall not be deemed part of this prospectus.
 

5

 
USE OF PROCEEDS
 
Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, we currently intend to use the net proceeds of any offering of securities for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Accordingly, we will have significant discretion in the use of any net proceeds. We may provide additional information on the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the offered securities in an applicable prospectus supplement relating to the offered securities.

6

 
DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES
 
This section describes the general terms of our securities. The following description is a summary only and is qualified by reference to the relevant provisions of Israeli law and Amended and Restated Articles of Association, a copy of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any securities the particular terms of the securities offered by that prospectus supplement to the extent such terms differ from those contained in this prospectus.
 
DESCRIPTION OF ORDINARY SHARES AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
 
General
 
We are an Israeli company incorporated with limited liability, and our affairs are governed by the provisions of our Amended and Restated Articles of Association (the “Articles”), as amended and restated from time to time, and by the provisions of applicable Israeli law, including the Companies Law of 1999 (the “Companies Law”). Our number with the Israeli Registrar of Companies is 514330604. The purpose of our company appears in Article 3 of our Articles, which is to engage in any lawful activity. In addition, our Articles authorize us to donate reasonable amounts to any charitable cause. Our registered office is at Kiryat Hadassah, Minrav Building — Fifth Floor, Jerusalem 9112002, Israel.
 
Ordinary Shares
 
Our authorized share capital consists of 140,010,000 ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.0000769 per share. All of our issued ordinary shares have been validly issued, fully paid and are non-assessable. The ordinary shares are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “ENTX.”
 
Our Ordinary Shares
 
Dividends and Liquidation Rights
 
We currently have only one class of shares. We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our ordinary shares, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and expansion of our business. Subject to the rights of holders of shares with preferential or special rights that may be authorized in the future, holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to participate in the payment of dividends pro rata in accordance with the amounts paid-up or credited as paid-up on the par value of such ordinary shares at the time of payment without taking into account any premium paid thereon. In the event that we were to go into liquidation, holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to a pro rata share of surplus assets remaining over liabilities, subject to rights conferred on any class of shares which may be issued in the future, in accordance with the amounts paid-up or credited as paid-up on the par value of such ordinary shares, without taking into account any premium paid thereon.

According to the Companies Law, a company may make a distribution of dividends out of its profits on the condition that there is no reasonable concern that the distribution may prevent the company from meeting its existing and expected obligations when they fall due. The Companies Law defines such profit as retained earnings or earnings generated in the last two years, whichever is greater, according to the last reviewed or audited financial statements of the company, provided that the end of the period to which the financial statements relate is not more than six months before the distribution. Declaration of dividends requires a resolution of our Board, and the court, if applicable and as required by the Companies Law, the board determines that there is no reasonable concern that payment of the dividend will prevent us from satisfying our existing and foreseeable obligations as they become due, and does not require shareholder approval.

Payment of dividends and proceeds from the sale of the shares or interest or other payments to non-residents of Israel, may be subject to Israeli withholding taxes. There are currently no Israeli currency control restrictions on remittances of dividends on our ordinary shares, proceeds from the sale of the shares or interest or other payments to non-residents of Israel, except for shareholders who are subjects of countries that are, or have been, in a state of war with Israel.

7


Voting Rights
 
Holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to one vote for each ordinary share on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders, subject to any special rights of any class of shares that may be authorized in the future. Cumulative voting for the election of directors is not permitted.
 
Quorum
 
As permitted under the Companies Law, pursuant to our Amended and Restated Articles of Association (“Articles”) , a quorum is required to conduct business at a shareholders' meeting.  Pursuant to our Articles, the presence, in person or by proxy, of at least two shareholders who hold in the aggregate at least 25% of the voting power of our issued and outstanding shares constitutes a quorum. A proxy may be deemed to be two (2) or more shareholders pursuant to the number of shareholders it represents. If a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time scheduled for such meeting, the meeting will be adjourned to the same day in the next week (at the same time and place), or to a later time and date if so specified in the notice of the meeting, unless such day shall fall on a statutory holiday (either in Israel or in the United States), in which case the meeting will be adjourned to the first Business Day afterwards. If at such adjourned meeting a quorum as specified above is not present within half an hour from the time designated for holding the meeting, subject to certain exceptions, any two shareholders present in person or by proxy shall constitute a quorum.
 
Shareholders’ Meetings and Resolutions
 
The Chairman of our board of directors is entitled to preside as Chairman of each shareholders’ meeting. If he is absent, his deputy or another person elected by the present shareholders will preside.
 
A simple majority is sufficient to approve most shareholders’ resolutions, including any amendment to our Articles, unless otherwise required by law or by our Articles.
 
We are required to hold an annual meeting of our shareholders once every calendar year, but no later than 15 months after the date of the previous annual meeting. All meetings other than the annual meeting of shareholders are referred to as special meetings. Our board of directors may call special meetings whenever it sees fit, at such time and place as it may determine. In addition, the Companies Law provides that the board of directors of a public company is required to convene a special meeting upon the request of:
 

any two directors of the company or one quarter of the board of directors; or
 

one or more shareholders holding, in the aggregate: (i) five percent of the outstanding shares of the company and one percent of the voting power in the company; or (ii) five percent of the voting power in the company.
 
The Companies Law enables our board of directors to fix a record date to allow us to determine the shareholders entitled to notice of, or to vote at, any meeting of our shareholders. Under current regulations, the record date may be not more than forty days and not less than four days prior to the date of the meeting and notice is required to be published at least 21 or 35 days prior to the meeting, depending on the items on the agenda. Under the Companies Law and regulations promulgated thereunder and pursuant to our Articles, one or more shareholders holding at least 1% of the voting rights at a general meeting of shareholders may request that the board of directors include a matter in the agenda of a general meeting of shareholders to be convened in the future, by submitting such proposal within seven days of publication of the Company's notice with respect to such meeting of shareholders and provided that certain resolutions are brought before the shareholders in such meeting.
 
Modification of Shareholders’ Rights
 
We currently have only one class of shares. The rights attached to a class of shares may be altered by the approval of the shareholders of such class holding a majority of the voting rights of such class. The provisions in our Articles pertaining to general meetings also apply to any special meeting of a class of shareholders. Pursuant to our Articles, the presence, in person or by proxy, of at least two shareholders who hold in the aggregate at least 25% of the voting power of our issued and outstanding shares constitutes a quorum. A proxy may be deemed to be two (2) or more shareholders pursuant to the number of shareholders it represents. If a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time scheduled for such meeting, the meeting will be adjourned to the same day in the next week (at the same time and place), or to a later time and date if so specified in the notice of the meeting, unless such day shall fall on a statutory holiday (either in Israel or in the United States), in which case the meeting will be adjourned to the first business day afterwards. If at such adjourned meeting a quorum as specified above is not present within half an hour from the time designated for holding the meeting, subject to certain exceptions, any two shareholders present in person or by proxy shall constitute a quorum

8


Preemptive Rights
 
Pursuant to our Articles, no preemptive rights are attached to our ordinary shares.
 
Restrictions on Non-Residents of Israel
 
The ownership or voting of our ordinary shares by non-residents of Israel is not restricted in any way by our Articles or the laws of Israel, except for ownership by nationals of some countries that are, or have been, in a state of war with Israel.
 
Preferred Shares
 
Currently there are no preferred shares authorized under the terms of our Articles. No preferred shares are outstanding.
 
Transfer Agent and Registrar
 
The transfer agent and registrar for the ordinary shares is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
 
The debt securities will be our direct general obligations. The debt securities will be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and may be secured or unsecured and may be convertible into other securities, including our ordinary shares. The debt securities will be issued under one or more separate indentures between our company and a financial institution that will act as trustee. Senior debt securities will be issued under a senior indenture. Subordinated debt securities will be issued under a subordinated indenture. Each of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture is referred to individually as an indenture and collectively as the indentures. Each of the senior debt trustee and the subordinated debt trustee is referred to individually as a trustee and collectively as the trustees. The material terms of any indenture will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
We have summarized certain terms and provisions of the indentures. The summary is not complete. The indentures are subject to and will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended. The senior indenture and subordinated indenture are substantially identical, except for the provisions relating to subordination.
 
Neither indenture will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. We may issue debt securities up to an aggregate principal amount as we may authorize from time to time. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any debt securities being offered. These terms will include some or all of the following:
 
 
classification as senior or subordinated debt securities;
 
ranking of the specific series of debt securities relative to other outstanding indebtedness, including subsidiaries’ debt;
 
if the debt securities are subordinated, the aggregate amount of outstanding indebtedness, as of a recent date, that is senior to the subordinated securities, and any limitation on the issuance of additional senior indebtedness;
 
the designation, aggregate principal amount and authorized denominations;
 
the date or dates on which the principal of the debt securities may be payable;

9



 
the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum at which the debt securities shall bear interest, if any;
 
the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, on which such interest shall be payable, and on which a record shall be taken for the determination of holders of the debt securities to whom interest is payable;
 
the place or places where the principal and interest shall be payable;
 
our right, if any, to redeem the debt securities, in whole or in part, at our option and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and any terms and conditions upon which such debt securities may be so redeemed, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;
 
our obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem, purchase or repay any debt securities pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or other provisions or at the option of a holder of the debt securities;
 
if other than denominations of $2,000 and any higher integral multiple of $1,000, the denominations in which the debt securities will be issuable;
 
if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies, in which payment of the principal and interest shall be payable;
 
whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of global securities;
 
provisions, if any, for the defeasance of the debt securities;
 
if applicable, a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax or Israeli tax consequences; and
 
other specific terms, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on the debt securities, including any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default or covenants described below or in the applicable indenture.

Senior Debt
 
We may issue under the senior indenture the debt securities that will constitute part of our senior debt. These senior debt securities will rank equally and pari passu with all our other unsecured and unsubordinated debt.
 
Subordinated Debt
 
We may issue under the subordinated indenture the debt securities that will constitute part of our subordinated debt. These subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner set forth in the subordinated indenture, to all our “senior indebtedness.” “Senior indebtedness” is defined in the subordinated indenture and generally includes obligations of, or guaranteed by, us for borrowed money, or as evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes or other similar instruments, or in respect of letters of credit or other similar instruments, or to pay the deferred purchase price of property or services, or as a lessee under capital leases, or as secured by a lien on any asset of ours. “Senior indebtedness” does not include the subordinated debt securities or any other obligations specifically designated as being subordinate in right of payment to, or pari passu with, the subordinated debt securities. In general, the holders of all senior indebtedness are first entitled to receive payment in full of such senior indebtedness before the holders of any of the subordinated debt securities are entitled to receive a payment on account of the principal or interest on the indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities in certain events. These events include:
 

subject to Israeli law, any insolvency or bankruptcy proceedings, or any receivership, dissolution, winding up, total or partial liquidation, reorganization or other similar proceedings in respect of us or a substantial part of our property, whether voluntary or involuntary;
 

(i) a default having occurred with respect to the payment of principal or interest on or other monetary amounts due and payable with respect to any senior indebtedness or (ii) an event of default (other than a default described in clause (i) above) having occurred with respect to any senior indebtedness that permits the holder or holders of such senior indebtedness to accelerate the maturity of such senior indebtedness. Such a default or event of default must have continued beyond the period of grace, if any, provided in respect of such default or event of default, and such a default or event of default shall not have been cured or waived or shall not have ceased to exist; and
 

the principal of, and accrued interest on, any series of the subordinated debt securities having been declared due and payable upon an event of default pursuant to the subordinated indenture. This declaration must not have been rescinded and annulled as provided in the subordinated indenture.
 
10


Authentication and Delivery
 
We will deliver the debt securities to the trustee for authentication, and the trustee will authenticate and deliver the debt securities upon our written order.
 
Event of Default
 
When we use the term “Event of Default” in the indentures with respect to the debt securities of any series, set forth below are some examples of what we mean:
 

(1)
default in the payment of the principal on the debt securities when it becomes due and payable at maturity or otherwise;
 

(2)
default in the payment of interest on the debt securities when it becomes due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 30 days;
 

(3)
default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant in the indenture (other than defaults specified in clauses (1) or (2) above) and the default or breach continues for a period of 90 consecutive days or more after written notice to us by the trustee or to us and the trustee by the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of all series affected thereby;
 

(4)
the occurrence of certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency, or similar proceedings with respect to us or any substantial part of our property; or
 

(5)
any other Events of Default that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) above) with respect to the debt securities of any series then outstanding occurs and is continuing, then either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the securities of all such series then outstanding in respect of which an Event of Default has occurred may by notice in writing to us declare the entire principal amount of all debt securities of the affected series, and accrued interest, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable.
 
If an Event of Default described in clause (4) above occurs and is continuing, then the principal amount of all the debt securities then outstanding and accrued interest shall be and become due immediately and payable without any declaration, notice or other action by any holder of the debt securities or the trustee.
 
The trustee will, within 90 days after the occurrence of any default actually known to it, give notice of the default to the holders of the debt securities of that series, unless the default was already cured or waived. Unless there is a default in paying principal or interest when due, the trustee can withhold giving notice to the holders if it determines in good faith that the withholding of notice is in the interest of the holders.
 
Satisfaction, Discharge and Defeasance
 
We may discharge our obligations under each indenture, except as to:
 

the rights of registration of transfer and exchange of debt securities, and our right of optional redemption, if any;
 

substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;
 
11



the rights of holders of the debt securities to receive payments of principal and interest;
 

the rights, obligations and immunities of the trustee; and
 

the rights of the holders of the debt securities as beneficiaries with respect to the property deposited with the trustee payable to them (as described below);
 
when:
 

either:
 

o
all debt securities of any series issued that have been authenticated and delivered have been delivered by us to the trustee for cancellation; or
 

o
all the debt securities of any series issued that have not been delivered by us to the trustee for cancellation have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by such trustee in our name and at our expense, and we have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the trustee as trust funds the entire amount sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all debt securities of such series not delivered to the trustee for cancellation, including principal and interest due or to become due on or prior to such date of maturity or redemption;
 

we have paid or caused to be paid all other sums then due and payable under such indenture; and
 

we have delivered to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent under such indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of such indenture have been complied with.
 
In addition, unless the applicable prospectus supplement and supplemental indenture otherwise provide, we may elect either (i) to have our obligations under each indenture discharged with respect to the outstanding debt securities of any series (“legal defeasance”) or (ii) to be released from our obligations under each indenture with respect to certain covenants applicable to the outstanding debt securities of any series (“covenant defeasance”). Legal defeasance means that we will be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the outstanding debt securities of such series under such indenture and covenant defeasance means that we will no longer be required to comply with the obligations with respect to such covenants (and an omission to comply with such obligations will not constitute a default or event of default).
 
In order to exercise legal defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to outstanding debt securities of any series:
 

we must irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to the benefits of the holders of the debt securities of a series:
 

money in an amount;
 

U.S. government obligations; or
 

a combination of money and U.S. government obligations,
 
in each case sufficient without reinvestment, in the written opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the trustee to pay and discharge, all of the principal and interest at due date or maturity or if we have made irrevocable arrangements satisfactory to the trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the trustee, the redemption date;
 

we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that, under then applicable U.S. federal income tax law, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the defeasance and will be subject to the same federal income tax as would be the case if the defeasance did not occur;
 
12



no default relating to bankruptcy or insolvency and, in the case of a covenant defeasance, no other default has occurred and is continuing at any time;
 

if at such time the debt securities of such series are listed on a national securities exchange, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the debt securities of such series will not be delisted as a result of such defeasance; and
 

we have delivered to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel stating that all conditions precedent with respect to the defeasance have been complied with.
 
We are required to furnish to each trustee an annual statement as to compliance with all conditions and covenants under the indenture.
 
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
 
We may issue warrants to purchase ordinary shares, debt securities, or other securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities. Warrants sold with other securities may be attached to or separate from the other securities. We will issue warrants under one or more warrant agreements between our company and a warrant agent that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any such warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants of such series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any of the holders of the warrants.
 
The prospectus supplement relating to any warrants we offer will include specific terms relating to the offering, the terms of the warrants and any applicable warrant agreements. These terms will include some or all of the following:
 

the title of the warrants;
 

the aggregate number of warrants offered;
 

the designation, number and terms of the ordinary shares, debt securities, or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants and procedures by which those numbers may be adjusted;
 

the exercise price of the warrants;
 

the dates or periods during which the warrants are exercisable;
 

the designation and terms of any securities with which the warrants are issued;
 

if the warrants are issued as a unit with another security, the date on and after which the warrants and the other security will be separately transferable;
 

if the exercise price is not payable in U.S. dollars, the foreign currency, currency unit or composite currency in which the exercise price is denominated;
 

any minimum or maximum amount of warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
 

any terms relating to the modification of the warrants;
 

if applicable, a discussion of the material Israeli and U.S. income tax considerations applicable to the issuance or exercise of such warrants;
 

the anti-dilution and adjustment of share capital provisions of the warrants, if any;
 

any circumstances that will cause the warrants to be deemed to be automatically exercised; and
 

any terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exchange or exercise of the warrants; and
 

any other specific terms of the warrants.
 
13


DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
 
We may issue rights to purchase any of our securities or any combination thereof. Rights may be issued independently or together with any other offered security and may or may not be transferable by the person purchasing or receiving the rights. The rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the shareholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any rights offering to our shareholders, we may enter into a standby underwriting arrangement with one or more underwriters pursuant to which such underwriters will purchase any offered securities remaining unsubscribed for after such rights offering. We may also appoint a rights agent that may act solely as our agent in connection with the rights that are sold. Any such agent will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any of the holders of the rights. In connection with a rights offering to our shareholders, we will distribute certificates evidencing the rights and a prospectus supplement to our shareholders on the record date that we set for receiving rights in such rights offering.
 
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms of rights in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:
 

the title of such rights;
 

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;
 

the securities for which such rights are exercisable;
 

the exercise price for such rights;
 

the number of such rights issued with respect to each ordinary share;
 

the extent to which such rights are transferable;
 

if applicable, a discussion of the material Israeli and U.S. income tax considerations applicable to the issuance or exercise of such rights;
 

the date on which the right to exercise such rights shall commence, and the date on which such rights shall expire (subject to any extension);
 

the extent to which such rights include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities;
 

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or other purchase arrangement, or any agency agreement, that we may enter into in connection with the rights offering; and
 

any other terms of such rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such rights.
 
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
 
As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units consisting of one or more ordinary shares, debt securities, warrants, rights or any combination of such securities. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe:
 

the terms of the units and of the ordinary shares, debt securities, warrants and/ or rights comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be traded separately;
 

a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units; and
 

a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units.
 

any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.
 
FORMS OF SECURITIES
 
Each debt security and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

14

 
Registered Global Securities
 
We may issue the registered debt securities and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.
 
If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.
 
Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.
 
So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants, represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of Entera, its affiliates, the trustees, the warrant agents or any other agent of us, agent of the trustees or agent of the warrant agents will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property to holders on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of these securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary.

15

 
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
 
We may sell the securities in one or more of the following ways (or in any combination) from time to time:
 

through underwriters or dealers;
 

directly to a limited number of purchasers or to a single purchaser;
 

through agents; or
 

through any other method permitted by applicable law and described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
The distribution of our securities may be carried out, from time to time, in one or more transactions, including:
 

block transactions and transactions on Nasdaq or any other organized market where the securities may be traded;
 

purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its own account pursuant to a prospectus supplement;
 

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker-dealer solicits purchasers;
 

sales “at the market”, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise; or
 

sales in other ways not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales to purchasers.
 
The prospectus supplement will state the terms of the offering of the securities, including:
 

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents;
 

the purchase price of such securities and the proceeds to be received by us, if any;
 

any underwriting discounts or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;
 

any initial public offering price;
 

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
 

any securities exchanges on which the securities may be listed.
 
Any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time.
 
If underwriters are used in the sale, the securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including:
 

negotiated transactions;
 

at a fixed public offering price or prices, which may be changed;
 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
 

at prices related to prevailing market prices; or
 

at negotiated prices.
 
16


Unless otherwise stated in a prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase any securities will be conditioned on customary closing conditions and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of such series of securities, if any are purchased.
 
The securities may be sold through agents from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities and any commissions paid to them. Generally, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment.
 
Sales to or through one or more underwriters or agents in at-the-market offerings will be made pursuant to the terms of a distribution or sales agreement with the underwriters or agents. Such underwriters or agents may act on an agency basis or on a principal basis. During the term of any such agreement, shares may be sold on a daily basis on any stock exchange, market or trading facility on which the ordinary shares are traded, in privately negotiated transactions or otherwise as agreed with the underwriters or agents. The distribution or sales agreement will provide that any ordinary shares sold will be sold at negotiated prices or at prices related to the then prevailing market prices for our ordinary shares. Therefore, exact figures regarding proceeds that will be raised or commissions to be paid cannot be determined at this time and will be described in a prospectus supplement. Pursuant to the terms of the distribution or sales agreement, we may also agree to sell, and the relevant underwriters or agents may agree to solicit offers to purchase, blocks of our ordinary shares or other securities. The terms of each such distribution agreement will be described in a prospectus supplement.
 
We may authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers by certain purchasers to purchase the securities at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus supplement will set forth any commissions paid for solicitation of these contracts.
 
Underwriters and agents may be entitled under agreements entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution with respect to payments which the underwriters or agents may be required to make.
 
The prospectus supplement may also set forth whether or not underwriters may over-allot or effect transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the securities at levels above those that might otherwise prevail in the open market, including, for example, by entering stabilizing bids, effecting syndicate covering transactions or imposing penalty bids.
 
Underwriters and agents may be customers of, engage in transactions with, or perform services for us and our affiliates in the ordinary course of business.
 
Each series of securities will be a new issue of securities and will have no established trading market, other than our ordinary shares, which are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. Any underwriters to whom securities are sold for public offering and sale may make a market in the securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. The securities, other than our ordinary shares, may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange.
 
17

 
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
 
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we have filed with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to the documents containing such information. The information we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future documents (excluding information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02, 7.01 and 9.01 of Form 8-K or any other information that is identified as “furnished” rather than filed) we file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act subsequent to the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering:
 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 8, 2022 as amended by our Form 10-K/A Amendment No. 1 filed with the SEC on April 29, 2022;
 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on May 12, 2022;
 

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K (not including any information furnished under Item 2.02, 7.01 or 9.01 of such Form 8-K or any other information that is identified as “furnished” rather than filed, which information is not incorporated by reference herein), filed with the SEC on May 16, 2022 and May 27, 2022; and
 

The description of our ordinary shares contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed on June 25, 2018, and any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description, including without limitation, Exhibit 2.2 of our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on March 18, 2021.
 
All filings filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement (excluding information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02, 7.01 and 9.01 of Form 8-K or any other information that is identified as “furnished” rather than filed) shall also be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
 
You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. Any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for the purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a later statement contained in this prospectus or in any other document incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
 
We will provide without charge to each person to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the reports or documents that have been incorporated by reference in this prospectus but not delivered with this prospectus (other than an exhibit to these filings, unless we have specifically incorporated that exhibit by reference in this prospectus). Any such request should be addressed to us at: Kiryat Hadassah, Minrav Building - Fifth Floor, Jerusalem, Israel, Attention: Spiros Jamas, Chief Executive Officer, or made by phone at +972-2-532-7151. You may also access the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus through our website at www.enterabio.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.
 
 
18

SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS
 
We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel. Service of process upon us and upon our directors and officers and any Israeli experts named in this prospectus, may be difficult to obtain within the United States. Furthermore, because substantially all of our assets and a significant number of our directors and officers are located outside the United States, any judgment obtained in the United States against us or any of our directors and officers may not be collectible within the United States.
 
We have been informed by our legal counsel in Israel, Herzog Fox & Neeman, that it may be difficult to initiate an action with respect to U.S. securities law in Israel. Israeli courts may refuse to hear a claim based on an alleged violation of U.S. securities laws reasoning that Israel is not the most appropriate forum to hear such a claim. In addition, even if an Israeli court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that Israeli law and not U.S. law is applicable to the claim. If U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact by expert witnesses, which can be a time-consuming and costly process. Certain matters of procedure may also be governed by Israeli law. There is little case law in Israel addressing these matters.
 
Subject to certain time limitations and legal procedures, Israeli courts may enforce a U.S. judgment in a civil matter which, subject to certain exceptions, is non-appealable, including judgments based upon the civil liability provisions of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and including a monetary or compensatory judgment in a non-civil matter, provided that:
 

the judgment was rendered after due process by a court which was, according to the laws of the state of the court, competent jurisdiction to render the judgment;
 

the judgment is final and is not subject to any right of appeal; and
 

the obligations imposed by the judgment are enforceable according to the laws of the State of Israel and according to the laws of the state in which the judgment was given and the substance of the judgment is not contrary to public policy;
 
Even if these conditions are met, an Israeli court will not declare a foreign civil judgment enforceable if:
 

the judgment was given in a state whose laws do not provide for the enforcement of judgments of Israeli courts (subject to exceptional cases);
 

the enforcement of the judgment is likely to prejudice the sovereignty or security of the State of Israel;
 

the judgment was obtained by fraud;
 

the opportunity given to the defendant to bring its arguments and evidence before the court was not reasonable in the opinion of the Israeli court;
 

the judgment was rendered by a court not competent to render it according to the laws of private international law as they apply in Israel;
 

the judgment is contradictory to another judgment that was given in the same matter between the same parties and that is still valid; or
 

at the time the action was brought in the foreign court, a lawsuit in the same matter and between the same parties was pending before a court or tribunal in Israel.
 
If a foreign judgment is enforced by an Israeli court, it generally will be payable in Israeli currency, which can then be converted into non-Israeli currency and transferred out of Israel. The usual practice in an action before an Israeli court to recover an amount in a non-Israeli currency is for the Israeli court to issue a judgment for the equivalent amount in Israeli currency at the rate of exchange in force on the date of the judgment, but the judgment debtor may make payment in foreign currency. Pending collection, the amount of the judgment of an Israeli court stated in Israeli currency ordinarily will be linked to the Israeli consumer price index plus interest at the annual statutory rate set by Israeli regulations prevailing at the time. Judgment creditors must bear the risk of unfavorable exchange rates.
 
19

 
LEGAL MATTERS
 
The validity of the securities offered in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Herzog, Fox & Neeman, Tel Aviv, Israel, our Israeli counsel. Certain matters of U.S. federal law will be passed upon for us Greenberg Traurig, P.A., Miami, Florida. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
EXPERTS
 
The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in note 1d to the financial statements) of Kesselman & Kesselman, Certified Public Accountants (Isr.), a member firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
 
20


$100,000,000 Ordinary Shares, Debt Securities,
Warrants, Rights and Units
 
offered by the Company
 


 
 
Entera Bio Ltd.

                                                 

PROSPECTUS
                                                 
 


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and we are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MAY 27, 2022
 
Prospectus

 
 
Up to 5,000,000 Ordinary Shares
 
We have entered into an amended and restated sales agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with B. Riley Securities, Inc. (“B. Riley Securities” or the “sales agent”), dated May 27, 2022, relating to the sale of our ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.0000769 per share (the “ordinary shares”), offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, under this prospectus, we may offer and sell up to 5,000,000 ordinary shares from time to time through or to B. Riley Securities, acting as our sales agent or principal.
 
Sales of our ordinary shares, if any, under this prospectus will be made by any method deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). B. Riley Securities is not required to sell any specific amount, but will act as our sales agent or principal using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
 
B. Riley Securities will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate equal to up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the Sales Agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 16 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to B. Riley Securities. In connection with the sale of the ordinary shares on our behalf, B. Riley Securities will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation to B. Riley Securities will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to B. Riley Securities with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
 
Our ordinary shares trade on the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) under the trading symbol “ENTX”. On May 25, 2022, the closing price for our ordinary shares on Nasdaq was $2.225 per share.
 
As of April 19, 2022, the aggregate market value of our outstanding ordinary shares held by non-affiliates was approximately $71.4 million based on 28,809,923 outstanding ordinary shares, of which approximately 24,198,756 ordinary shares were held by non-affiliates. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event may we offer securities pursuant to this prospectus with an aggregate offering price of more than one-third of the aggregate market value of our ordinary shares held by non-affiliates in any twelve-month period, or approximately $23.8 million, for as long as the aggregate market value of our ordinary shares held by non-affiliates is less than $75,000,000. We have not offered any of our securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on, and includes, the date of this prospectus. Based on a price of $2.225 per share, which was the closing price of our ordinary shares as reported on Nasdaq on May 25, 2022, the aggregate offering price of the 5,000,000 ordinary shares offered hereby is within the limitation set forth under General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, and, for so long as we are subject to such limitation, we will not sell ordinary shares with an aggregate market value in excess of $23.8 million in any 12 calendar-month period.
 
If, subsequent to the date of this prospectus, the aggregate market value of our outstanding ordinary shares held by non-affiliates equals or exceeds $75,000,000, then the one-third limitation on sales will not apply to additional sales made pursuant to this prospectus or any related prospectus supplement.
 
Investing in our ordinary shares involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus and in the reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), incorporated by reference in this prospectus before making a decision to invest in our ordinary shares.
 
Neither the SEC nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
 
B. Riley Securities
 
          , 2022
 


TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Page
 
S-1
S-2
 S-3
 S-4
 S-8
 S-10
 S-11
 S-12
 S-13
 S-16
 S-22
 S-22
 S-22
 S-22
 


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
 
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell ordinary shares, debt securities, warrants, rights or units comprising any combination of these securities, in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $100.0 million. Under this prospectus, we may from time to time offer and sell up to 5,000,000 ordinary shares at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. The 5,000,000 ordinary shares that may be sold under this prospectus are included in the $100.0 million of securities that may be sold under the registration statement. However, pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event may we offer securities pursuant to this prospectus with an aggregate offering price of more than one-third of the aggregate market value of our ordinary shares held by non-affiliates, or $23.8 million, in any twelve-month period, for as long as the aggregate market value of our ordinary shares held by non-affiliates is less than $75,000,000. Based on a price of $2.225 per share, which was the closing price of our ordinary shares as reported on Nasdaq on May 25, 2022, the aggregate offering price of the 5,000,000 ordinary shares offered hereby is within the limitation set forth under General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, and, for so long as we are subject to such limitation, we will not sell ordinary shares with an aggregate market value in excess of $23.8 million in any 12 calendar-month period.

As permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC, the registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part, includes additional information not contained in this prospectus. You may read the registration statement and the other reports we file with the SEC at the SEC’s web site or at the SEC’s offices described below under the headings “Where You Can Find Additional Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference.”
 
  We have not authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not, and B. Riley Securities has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We take no responsibility for, and provide no assurance as to the reliability of any other information that others may give you. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus are accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.
 
  You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” in this prospectus.
 
      In this prospectus, the terms “Entera,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” and “our company” refer to Entera Bio Ltd and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires.
 
S - 1


 
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
 
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before making an investment decision. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our ordinary shares discussed under “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus and under the section “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on March 8, 2022, and any amendment or update thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
 
Entera Bio Ltd.
 
Our Business
 
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of orally delivered macromolecule therapeutics for use in areas with significant unmet medical need where adoption of injectable therapies is limited due to cost, convenience and compliance challenges for patients. Our current strategy for our lead product candidates is to use our technology to develop an oral formulation of human parathyroid hormone (1-34), or PTH, which has been approved in the United States in injectable form for over a decade. Our lead oral PTH product candidates are EB613 for the treatment of osteoporosis and EB612 for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism.
 
Corporate Information
 
Our principal and registered office is located at Kiryat Hadassah Minrav Building - Fifth Floor, Jerusalem, Israel, and our telephone number is +972-2-532-7151. Our corporate website is located at www.enterabio.com. The information on our website shall not be deemed part of this prospectus.
 
Implications of Being an “Emerging Growth Company”
 
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other burdens that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include an exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
We may take advantage of these provisions for a period of five years following the completion of our initial public offering (which occurred in July 2018) or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, have more than $700 million in market value of our ordinary shares held by non-affiliates or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced burdens.
 
S - 2


 
 
THE OFFERING
 
Ordinary Shares Offered by Us
Up to 5,000,000 ordinary shares.
   
Ordinary Shares to be Outstanding after this Offering
Up to 33,809,923 ordinary shares assuming sales of 5,000,000 ordinary shares, at a price of $2.225 per share, which was the closing price of our ordinary shares as reported on Nasdaq on May 25, 2022. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
   
Plan of Distribution
Sales of ordinary shares, if any, will be made from time to time in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act. B. Riley Securities will act as agent or principal and will use reasonable best efforts to sell on our behalf all of the ordinary shares requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. See “Plan of Distribution.”
   
Use of Proceeds
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include, but are not limited to, research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

Risk Factors
You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, and in any updates to those risk factors in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q incorporated by reference herein, for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to purchase our ordinary shares.
   
Nasdaq Capital Market Symbol
Our ordinary shares are listed for trading on Nasdaq under the symbol “ENTX.”
   
Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations
We may be a passive foreign investment company for the current or any other taxable year, which generally would result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to our U.S. investors. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4  for further information.

The number of shares to be outstanding after this offering above is based on our actual ordinary shares outstanding as of May 25, 2022 and excludes:
 

6,118,485 of our ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of May 25, 2022, at a weighted average exercise price of $3.22 per ordinary share;
 

941,130 of our ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of May 25, 2022, at a weighted average exercise price of $6.15 per ordinary share; and
 

135 of our ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan as of May 25, 2022.
 
 
S - 3


RISK FACTORS
 
You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on March 8, 2022 and in any updates to those risk factors in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-Ks and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q incorporated by reference herein, as well as the other information in this prospectus before making an investment in our ordinary shares. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected if any of these risks occurs, and as a result, the market price of our ordinary shares could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors.
 
Risks related to this offering and ownership of our ordinary shares
 
The price of our ordinary shares and tradeable warrants may be volatile, and holders of our ordinary shares could lose all or part of their investment.
 
The price of securities for publicly traded emerging biopharmaceutical and drug discovery and development companies has been highly volatile and is likely to remain highly volatile in the future. The market price of our ordinary shares and tradeable warrants on Nasdaq may fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including, but not limited to:
 

clinical trial results and the timing of the release of such results;
 

the amount of our cash resources and our ability to obtain additional funding;
 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our and our competitors’ results of operations and financial condition;
 

announcements of research activities, business developments, technological innovations or new products, or acquisitions or expansion plans by us or our competitors;
 

success or failure of our research and development projects or those of our competitors;
 

our entering into or terminating strategic relationships;
 

changes in laws or government regulation;
 

regulatory developments and the decisions of regulatory authorities as to the approval or rejection of new or modified products;
 

departure of our key personnel;
 

disputes related to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain intellectual property protection for our technologies;
 

our sale, or the sale by our significant shareholders, of ordinary shares, warrants or other securities in the future;
 

public concern regarding the safety, efficacy or other aspects of the products or methodologies we are developing;
 

market conditions in our industry and changes in estimates of the future size and growth rate of our markets;
 

market acceptance of our products;
 

the mix of products that we sell and related services that we provide;
 

the success or failure of our licensees to develop, obtain approval for and commercialize our licensed products, for which we are entitled to contingent payments and royalties;
 

publication of the results of preclinical or clinical trials for EB613, EB612 or any other product candidates we may develop;
 

failure by us to achieve a publicly announced milestone;
 

delays between our expenditures to develop and market new or enhanced products and the generation of sales from those products;
 
S - 4



changes in the amounts that we spend to develop, acquire or license new products, technologies or businesses;
 

changes in our expenditures to promote our products;
 

variance in our financial performance from the expectations of market analysts;
 

the limited trading volume of our ordinary shares and tradeable warrants;
 

impacts or disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic; and
 

general economic and market conditions, including factors unrelated to our industry or operating performance.
 
In addition, the stock market in general has recently experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of individual companies. Broad market and industry factors may materially affect the market price of companies’ stock, including ours, regardless of actual operating performance.
 
Our ordinary shares may become the target of a “short squeeze.
 
In 2021, the securities of several companies increasingly experienced significant and extreme volatility in share price due to short sellers of ordinary shares and buy-and-hold decisions of longer investors, resulting in what is sometimes described as a “short squeeze.” Short squeezes have caused extreme volatility in those companies and in the market and have led to the price per share of those companies to trade at a significantly inflated rate that is disconnected from the underlying value of the company. Sharp rises in a company’s share price may force traders in a short position to buy the shares to avoid even greater losses. Many investors who have purchased shares in those companies at an inflated rate face the risk of losing a significant portion of their original investment as the price per share has declined steadily as interest in those shares have abated. We may be a target of a short squeeze, and investors may lose a significant portion or all of their investment if they purchase our shares at a rate that is significantly disconnected from our underlying value.
 
Future sales of our ordinary shares, other securities convertible into our ordinary shares or preferred shares could cause the market value of our ordinary shares to decline and could result in dilution of your shares.
 
We may issue up to 5,000,000 of our ordinary shares as part of the offering contemplated by this prospectus. In addition, our board of directors is authorized, without your approval, to cause us to issue additional shares of our ordinary shares or to raise capital through the issuance of debt securities convertible into ordinary shares, options, warrants and other rights, on terms and for consideration as our board of directors in its sole discretion may determine. Sales of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decrease significantly. We cannot predict the effect, if any, of future sales of our ordinary shares, or the availability of our ordinary shares for future sales, on the value of our ordinary shares. Sales of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares by our directors or officers or another large shareholder, or the perception that such sales could occur, may adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares.
 
There is a risk that we may be a passive foreign investment company, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which generally would result in certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to our U.S. investors.
 
There is a risk that we may be treated as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for any taxable year. The application of the PFIC rules to a company like us is subject to uncertainties, and for the reasons described below, we cannot express a view as to whether we will be a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year. In general, a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC for any taxable year in which (i) 75% or more of its gross income consists of passive income, or the income test, or (ii) 50% or more of the average value of its assets consists of assets (generally determined on a quarterly basis) that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income, or the assets test. Generally, passive income includes interest, dividends, rents, royalties and certain gains, and cash is generally treated as a passive asset that produces passive income for PFIC purposes. The assets shown on our balance sheet consist, and are expected to continue to consist, primarily of cash and cash equivalents for the foreseeable future. Therefore, whether we will satisfy the assets test for the current or any future taxable year will depend largely on the quarterly value of our goodwill and on how quickly we utilize our cash in our business. Because (i) the value of our goodwill may be determined by reference to the market price of our ordinary shares, which has been, and may continue to be volatile given the nature and early stage of our business, (ii) we hold, and expect to continue to hold, a significant amount of cash, and (iii) a company’s annual PFIC status can be determined only after the end of each taxable year, we cannot express a view as to whether we will be a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year. In addition, it is not clear how to apply the income test to a company like us, which is still developing its key intangible assets and whose overall losses from research activities significantly exceed the amount of its income (including passive income). If our losses from research and development activities are disregarded for purposes of the income test, we may be a PFIC for any taxable year if 75% or more of our gross income (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) for the relevant year is from interest and financial investments. Because the revenue shown on our financial statements is not calculated based on U.S. tax principles, and because for any taxable year we may not have sufficient (or any) non-passive revenue, there is a risk that we may be or become a PFIC under the income test for any taxable year. If we were a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. investor owned our ordinary shares, such U.S. shareholder generally will be subject to certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, including increased tax liability on gains from dispositions of the ordinary shares and certain distributions and a requirement to file annual reports with the Internal Revenue Service. U.S. investors should consult with their tax advisers regarding the application of the PFIC rules as they may relate to an investment in our company and should read the discussion below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”
 
S - 5


 
We have broad discretion to use the proceeds from this offering, and our investment of those proceeds may not yield a favorable return.
 
Our management has broad discretion to use the proceeds from this offering in ways with which you may not agree. The failure of our management to apply these funds effectively could result in unfavorable returns. This could harm our business and could cause the market value of our ordinary shares to decline. See “Use of Proceeds.”
 
You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.
 
The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our ordinary shares prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 5,000,000 shares of our ordinary shares are sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement at a price of $2.225 per share, the closing price of our ordinary shares on Nasdaq on May 25, 2022, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $11.1 million, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $1.325 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2022 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants may result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.
 
You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.
 
In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our ordinary shares, including pursuant to our at-the-market sales program. We cannot predict the effect, if any, of future sales of our ordinary shares, or the availability of our ordinary shares for future sales, on the value of our ordinary shares, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing shareholders, including investors who purchase shares of ordinary shares pursuant to our at-the-market sales program.
 
It is not possible to predict the actual number of shares we will sell under the Sales Agreement, or the gross proceeds resulting from those sales.
 
Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to the sales agent at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold through the sales agent after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of the ordinary shares during the sales period, the limits we set with the sales agent in any applicable placement notice, and the demand for our ordinary shares during the sales period. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate during the sales period, it is not currently possible to predict the number of shares that will be sold or the gross proceeds to be raised in connection with those sales, if any.

S - 6

 
The ordinary shares offered hereby will be sold in at the market offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
 
Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so they may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold in this offering. In addition, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
 
If securities or industry analysts fail to continue publishing research about our business, if they change their recommendations adversely or if our results of operations do not meet their expectations, our share price and trading volume could decline.
 
The trading market for our ordinary shares will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our share price or trading volume to decline. In addition, it is likely that in some future period our operating results will be below the expectations of securities analysts or investors. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our shares, or if our results of operations do not meet their expectations, our share price could decline.
 
       Because we do not intend to declare cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future, shareholders must rely on appreciation of the value of our ordinary shares for any return on their investment and may not receive any funds without selling their ordinary shares.
 
      We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our ordinary shares and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, we expect that only appreciation of the price of our ordinary shares, if any, will provide a return to investors in this offering for the foreseeable future. In addition, because we do not pay cash dividends, if our shareholders want to receive funds in respect of our ordinary shares, they must sell their ordinary shares to do so.

S - 7

 
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This prospectus contains “forward-looking statements,” as that term is defined under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (“PSLRA”), Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).  Various statements in this report are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the PSLRA and other U.S. Federal securities laws. In addition, historic results of scientific research and clinical and preclinical trials do not guarantee that the conclusions of future research or trials would not be different, and historic results referred to in this prospectus may be interpreted differently in light of additional research and clinical and preclinical trial results. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our management’s current expectations and future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. Forward-looking statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this report regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. These statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and are based on information currently available to our management. Words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplates,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “will,” “would,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” or the negative of these terms and similar expressions or words, identify forward-looking statements. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in our forward-looking statements. These factors include those described in “Item 1A-Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on March 8, 2022. Meaningful factors which could cause actual results to differ include, but are not limited to:
 

the scope, progress and costs of developing our product candidates such as EB613 for Osteoporosis and EB612 for Hypoparathyroidism, including without limitation any changes to the design of the Phase 3 clinical trial of EB613;
 

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, capital requirements, the sufficiency of our cash resources and the need for additional financing;
 

our ability to raise additional funds on commercially reasonable terms, including via our at the market program;
 

our ability to develop, advance product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical studies such as our Phase 2 clinical trial of EB613 in osteoporosis;
 

our reliance on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and on third-party suppliers to supply or produce our product candidates;
 

our interpretation of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) feedback and guidance and how such guidance may impact our clinical development plans, specifically our ability to utilize the 505(b)(2) pathway for the development and potential approval of EB613 and any other product candidates we may develop;
 

our expectations regarding licensing, business transactions and strategic collaborations, including our ongoing collaboration with Amgen;
 

our ability to use and expand our drug delivery technology to additional product candidates;
 

our operation as a development stage company with limited operating history and a history of operating losses and our ability to fund our operations going forward;
 

our ability to continue as a going concern absent access to sources of liquidity;
 
S - 8



our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates;
 

our competitive position, especially with respect to Forteo® and other products on the market or in development for the treatment of osteoporosis;
 

our ability to establish and maintain development and commercialization collaborations;
 

any potential commercial launch of current or future product candidates, and the timing, cost or other aspects of such commercialization;
 

our ability to manufacture and supply sufficient amounts of material to support our clinical trials and any potential future commercial requirements;
 

the safety and efficacy of therapeutics marketed by competitors that are targeted toward indications for which we are developing product candidates;
 

the size of any market we may target and the adoption of our product candidates, if approved, by physicians and patients;
 

our ability to obtain, maintain and protect our intellectual property and operate our business without infringing misappropriating or otherwise violating any intellectual property rights of others;
 

our ability to retain key personnel and recruit additional qualified personnel;
 

the possibility that competing products or technologies may make any product candidates we may develop and commercialize or our oral delivery technology obsolete;
 

the pricing and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;
 

our ability to develop a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure, if any;
 

our ability to manage growth; and
 

the duration and severity of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the actions that may be required to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, and its impact on our operations and workforce, including our research and development and clinical trials.
 
All forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We caution investors not to rely too heavily on the forward-looking statements we make or that are made on our behalf. Except as required by applicable law, we are under no duty, and expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in any annual, quarterly or current reports that we may file with the SEC.

S - 9

 
USE OF PROCEEDS
 
We may issue and sell our ordinary shares having aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to 5,000,000 of our ordinary shares from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.
 
We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include, but are not limited to, research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes.
 
Our expected use of net proceeds from this offering represents our current intentions based upon our present plans and business condition. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot predict with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received upon the completion of this offering, if any, or the amounts that we will actually spend on the uses set forth above. The amounts and timing of our actual use of net proceeds will vary depending on numerous factors, including our ability to obtain additional financing, the relative success and cost of our research, preclinical and clinical development programs, the amount and timing of additional revenues, if any, received from our collaborations and whether we enter into future collaborations. As a result, management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and investors will be relying on our judgment regarding the application of the net proceeds of this offering. In addition, we might decide to postpone or not pursue other clinical trials or preclinical activities if the net proceeds from this offering and our other sources of cash are less than expected.
 
Pending their use, we plan to invest the net proceeds, if any, from this offering in short- and intermediate-term interest-bearing financial assets and certificates of deposit.
 
S - 10

 
DIVIDEND POLICY
 
We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our ordinary shares, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and expansion of our business.
 
 
S - 11


DILUTION
 
If you invest in our ordinary shares in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the price you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per ordinary share after this offering.
 
Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2022 was $19.7 million, or $0.69 per ordinary share, based on 28,804,411 ordinary shares then outstanding. After giving effect to the assumed sale by us of 5,000,000 our ordinary shares at an assumed public offering price of $2.225 per share (the closing price of our ordinary shares on May 25, 2022 as reported on Nasdaq), less the estimated commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our adjusted net tangible book value at March 31, 2022 would have been $30.4 million, or $0.90 per ordinary share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.21 per share to existing shareholders and an immediate dilution of $1.325 per share to new investors in this offering. The following table illustrates this per share dilution.
 
Assumed public offering price per share
       
$
2.225
 
Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2022
 
$
0.69
         
Increase in net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering
 
$
0.21
         
Adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering
         
$
0.90
 
Dilution per share to new investors
         
$
1.325
 

The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will vary based on the actual sale price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time our ordinary shares are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.
 
The above is based on our actual ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and excludes:
 

5,425,372 of our ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of March 31, 2022, at a weighted average exercise price of $3.35 per ordinary share;
 

941,130 of our ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2022, at a weighted average exercise price of $6.15 per ordinary share; and
 

693,248 of our ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan as of March 31, 2022.
 
To the extent that outstanding options or warrants are exercised, you may experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of such securities may result in further dilution to our shareholders.
 
S - 12

 
DESCRIPTION OF ORDINARY SHARES
 
This section describes the general terms of our ordinary shares. The following description is a summary only and is qualified by reference to the relevant provisions of Israeli law and our Amended and Restated Articles of Association, a copy of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus. 
 
General
 
We are an Israeli company incorporated with limited liability, and our affairs are governed by the provisions of our Amended and Restated Articles of Association (the “Articles”), as amended and restated from time to time, and by the provisions of applicable Israeli law, including the Companies Law of 1999 (the “Companies Law”). Our number with the Israeli Registrar of Companies is 514330604. The purpose of our company appears in Article 3 of our Articles, which is to engage in any lawful activity. In addition, our Articles authorize us to donate reasonable amounts to any charitable cause. Our registered office is at Kiryat Hadassah, Minrav Building — Fifth Floor, Jerusalem 9112002, Israel
 
Ordinary Shares
 
Our authorized share capital consists of 140,010,000 ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.0000769 per share. All of our issued ordinary shares have been validly issued, fully paid and are non-assessable. The ordinary shares are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “ENTX.”
 
Our Ordinary Shares
 
Dividends and Liquidation Rights
 
We currently have only one class of shares. We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our ordinary shares, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and expansion of our business. Subject to the rights of holders of shares with preferential or special rights that may be authorized in the future, holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to participate in the payment of dividends pro rata in accordance with the amounts paid-up or credited as paid-up on the par value of such ordinary shares at the time of payment without taking into account any premium paid thereon. In the event that we were to go into liquidation, holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to a pro rata share of surplus assets remaining over liabilities, subject to rights conferred on any class of shares which may be issued in the future, in accordance with the amounts paid-up or credited as paid-up on the par value of such ordinary shares, without taking into account any premium paid thereon.
 
According to the Companies Law, a company may make a distribution of dividends out of its profits on the condition that there is no reasonable concern that the distribution may prevent the company from meeting its existing and expected obligations when they fall due. The Companies Law defines such profit as retained earnings or earnings generated in the last two years, whichever is greater, according to the last reviewed or audited financial statements of the company, provided that the end of the period to which the financial statements relate is not more than six months before the distribution. Declaration of dividends requires a resolution of our Board, and the court, if applicable and as required by the Companies Law, the board determines that there is no reasonable concern that payment of the dividend will prevent us from satisfying our existing and foreseeable obligations as they become due, and does not require shareholder approval. Payment of dividends and proceeds from the sale of the shares or interest or other payments to non-residents of Israel, may be subject to Israeli withholding taxes. There are currently no Israeli currency control restrictions on remittances of dividends on our ordinary shares, proceeds from the sale of the shares or interest or other payments to non-residents of Israel, except for shareholders who are subjects of countries that are, or have been, in a state of war with Israel.

S - 13

 
Voting Rights
 
Holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to one vote for each ordinary share on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders, subject to any special rights of any class of shares that may be authorized in the future. Cumulative voting for the election of directors is not permitted.
 
Quorum
 
As permitted under the Companies Law, pursuant to our Articles, a quorum is required to conduct business at a shareholders' meeting.  Pursuant to our Articles, the presence, in person or by proxy, of at least two shareholders who hold in the aggregate at least 25% of the voting power of our issued and outstanding shares constitutes a quorum. A proxy may be deemed to be two (2) or more shareholders pursuant to the number of shareholders it represents. If a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time scheduled for such meeting, the meeting will be adjourned to the same day in the next week (at the same time and place), or to a later time and date if so specified in the notice of the meeting, unless such day shall fall on a statutory holiday (either in Israel or in the United States), in which case the meeting will be adjourned to the first Business Day afterwards. If at such adjourned meeting a quorum as specified above is not present within half an hour from the time designated for holding the meeting, subject to certain exceptions, any two shareholders present in person or by proxy shall constitute a quorum.
 
Shareholders’ Meetings and Resolutions
 
The Chairman of our board of directors is entitled to preside as Chairman of each shareholders’ meeting. If he is absent, his deputy or another person elected by the present shareholders will preside.
 
A simple majority is sufficient to approve most shareholders’ resolutions, including any amendment to our Articles, unless otherwise required by law or by our Articles.
 
We are required to hold an annual meeting of our shareholders once every calendar year, but no later than 15 months after the date of the previous annual meeting. All meetings other than the annual meeting of shareholders are referred to as special meetings. Our board of directors may call special meetings whenever it sees fit, at such time and place as it may determine. In addition, the Companies Law provides that the board of directors of a public company is required to convene a special meeting upon the request of:
 

any two directors of the company or one quarter of the board of directors; or
 

one or more shareholders holding, in the aggregate: (i) five percent of the outstanding shares of the company and one percent of the voting power in the company; or (ii) five percent of the voting power in the company.
 
The Companies Law enables our board of directors to fix a record date to allow us to determine the shareholders entitled to notice of, or to vote at, any meeting of our shareholders. Under current regulations, the record date may be not more than forty days and not less than four days prior to the date of the meeting and notice is required to be published at least 21 or 35 days prior to the meeting, depending on the items on the agenda. Under the Companies Law and regulations promulgated thereunder and pursuant to our Articles, one or more shareholders holding at least 1% of the voting rights at a general meeting of shareholders may request that the board of directors include a matter in the agenda of a general meeting of shareholders to be convened in the future, by submitting such proposal within seven days of publication of the Company's notice with respect to such meeting of shareholders and provided that certain resolutions are brought before the shareholders in such meeting.
 
Modification of Shareholders’ Rights
 
We currently have only one class of shares. The rights attached to a class of shares may be altered by the approval of the shareholders of such class holding a majority of the voting rights of such class. The provisions in our Articles pertaining to general meetings also apply to any special meeting of a class of shareholders. Pursuant to our Articles, the presence, in person or by proxy, of at least two shareholders who hold in the aggregate at least 25% of the voting power of our issued and outstanding shares constitutes a quorum. A proxy may be deemed to be two (2) or more shareholders pursuant to the number of shareholders it represents. If a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time scheduled for such meeting, the meeting will be adjourned to the same day in the next week (at the same time and place), or to a later time and date if so specified in the notice of the meeting, unless such day shall fall on a statutory holiday (either in Israel or in the United States), in which case the meeting will be adjourned to the first business day afterwards. If at such adjourned meeting a quorum as specified above is not present within half an hour from the time designated for holding the meeting, subject to certain exceptions, any two shareholders present in person or by proxy shall constitute a quorum.

S - 14


Preemptive Rights
 
Pursuant to our Articles of Association, no preemptive rights are attached to our ordinary shares.
 
Restrictions on Non-Residents of Israel
 
The ownership or voting of our ordinary shares by non-residents of Israel is not restricted in any way by our Articles or the laws of Israel, except for ownership by nationals of some countries that are, or have been, in a state of war with Israel.
 
Preferred Shares
 
Currently there are no preferred shares authorized under the terms of our Articles. No preferred shares are outstanding.
 
Transfer Agent and Registrar
 
The transfer agent and registrar for the ordinary shares is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.
 
S - 15

 
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
 
We have entered into a Sales Agreement with B. Riley Securities under which we may issue and sell up to 5,000,000 of our ordinary shares from time to time through or to B. Riley Securities acting as our sales agent or principal.
 
Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, B. Riley Securities may sell our ordinary shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct B. Riley Securities not to sell ordinary shares if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or B. Riley Securities may suspend the offering of ordinary shares upon notice and subject to other conditions.
 
We will pay B. Riley Securities commissions, in cash, for its services in acting as agent in the sale of our ordinary shares. B. Riley Securities will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate equal to up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse B. Riley Securities for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel, in an amount not to exceed $25,000. Additionally, pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement, we agreed to reimburse B. Riley Securities for the documented fees and costs of its legal counsel reasonably incurred in connection with B. Riley Securities’ ongoing diligence arising from the transactions contemplated by the Sales Agreement in an amount not to exceed $2,500 per calendar quarter. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursement payable to B. Riley Securities under the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $150,000.
 
Settlement for sales of ordinary shares will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and B. Riley Securities in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our ordinary shares as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of the Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and B. Riley Securities may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
 
B. Riley Securities will use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its sales and trading practices, to solicit offers to purchase the ordinary shares under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the ordinary shares on our behalf, B. Riley Securities will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of B. Riley Securities will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to B. Riley Securities against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
 
This offering of our ordinary shares pursuant to Sales Agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) sale of all shares of our ordinary shares subject to this prospectus or (2) the termination of the Sales Agreement as permitted therein. We and B. Riley Securities may each terminate the Sales Agreement at any time upon five days’ prior written notice.
 
Any portion of the ordinary shares included in this prospectus that is not previously sold or included in an active placement notice pursuant to the Sales Agreement is available for sale in other offerings pursuant to our registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part, and the accompanying base prospectus.
 
Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market and trades under the symbol “ENTX.” The transfer agent of our ordinary shares is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
 
S - 16


SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS
 
We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel. Service of process upon us and upon our directors and officers and any Israeli experts named in this prospectus, may be difficult to obtain within the United States. Furthermore, because substantially all of our assets and a significant number of our directors and officers are located outside the United States, any judgment obtained in the United States against us or any of our directors and officers may not be collectible within the United States.
 
We have been informed by our legal counsel in Israel, Herzog Fox & Neeman, that it may be difficult to initiate an action with respect to U.S. securities law in Israel. Israeli courts may refuse to hear a claim based on an alleged violation of U.S. securities laws reasoning that Israel is not the most appropriate forum to hear such a claim. In addition, even if an Israeli court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that Israeli law and not U.S. law is applicable to the claim. If U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact by expert witnesses, which can be a time-consuming and costly process. Certain matters of procedure may also be governed by Israeli law. There is little case law in Israel addressing these matters.
 
Subject to certain time limitations and legal procedures, Israeli courts may enforce a U.S. judgment in a civil matter which, subject to certain exceptions, is non-appealable, including judgments based upon the civil liability provisions of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and including a monetary or compensatory judgment in a non-civil matter, provided that:
 

the judgment was rendered after due process by a court which was, according to the laws of the state of the court, competent jurisdiction to render the judgment;
 

the judgment is final and is not subject to any right of appeal; and
 

the obligations imposed by the judgment are enforceable according to the laws of the State of Israel and according to the laws of the state in which the judgment was given and the substance of the judgment is not contrary to public policy;
 
Even if these conditions are met, an Israeli court will not declare a foreign civil judgment enforceable if:
 

the judgment was given in a state whose laws do not provide for the enforcement of judgments of Israeli courts (subject to exceptional cases);
 

the enforcement of the judgment is likely to prejudice the sovereignty or security of the State of Israel;
 

the judgment was obtained by fraud;
 

the opportunity given to the defendant to bring its arguments and evidence before the court was not reasonable in the opinion of the Israeli court;
 

the judgment was rendered by a court not competent to render it according to the laws of private international law as they apply in Israel;
 

the judgment is contradictory to another judgment that was given in the same matter between the same parties and that is still valid; or
 

at the time the action was brought in the foreign court, a lawsuit in the same matter and between the same parties was pending before a court or tribunal in Israel.
 
If a foreign judgment is enforced by an Israeli court, it generally will be payable in Israeli currency, which can then be converted into non-Israeli currency and transferred out of Israel. The usual practice in an action before an Israeli court to recover an amount in a non-Israeli currency is for the Israeli court to issue a judgment for the equivalent amount in Israeli currency at the rate of exchange in force on the date of the judgment, but the judgment debtor may make payment in foreign currency. Pending collection, the amount of the judgment of an Israeli court stated in Israeli currency ordinarily will be linked to the Israeli consumer price index plus interest at the annual statutory rate set by Israeli regulations prevailing at the time. Judgment creditors must bear the risk of unfavorable exchange rates.
 
S - 17


MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR U.S. HOLDERS
 
The following are material U.S. federal income tax consequences to the U.S. Holders described below of owning and disposing of our ordinary shares, but it does not purport to be a comprehensive description of all the tax considerations that may be relevant to a particular person’s decision to own the ordinary shares. This discussion applies only to a U.S. Holder that holds our ordinary shares as capital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, it does not describe all of the tax consequences that may be relevant in light of a U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances, including alternative minimum tax consequences, the Medicare tax on certain net investment income, and tax consequences to U.S. Holders subject to special provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, such as:
 

financial institutions, underwriters, insurance companies, real estate investment trusts, or regulated investment companies;
 

dealers or traders in securities that use a mark-to-market method of tax accounting;
 

persons holding ordinary shares as part of a “straddle” or integrated transaction or persons entering into a constructive sale with respect to the ordinary shares;
 

persons whose functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes is not the U.S. dollar;
 

partnerships or other pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
 

tax exempt organizations, qualified retirement plans, individual retirement accounts or other tax-deferred accounts;
 

persons that own or are deemed to own 10% or more of our stock by vote or value; or
 

persons holding our ordinary shares in connection with a trade or business conducted outside of the United States.
 
If an entity or arrangement that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes owns our ordinary shares, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. Partnerships owning our ordinary shares and partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisers as to the particular U.S. federal tax consequences of owning and disposing of the ordinary shares.
 
This discussion is based on the Code, administrative pronouncements, judicial decisions, and final and proposed Treasury regulations, changes to any of which subsequent to the date of this prospectus may affect the tax consequences described herein.
 
For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is a person who, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is a beneficial owner of ordinary shares and is:
 

a citizen or individual resident of the United States;
 

a corporation, or other entity taxable as a corporation, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state therein or the District of Columbia; or
 

an estate or trust the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source.
 
U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers concerning the U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of owning and disposing of our ordinary shares in their particular circumstances.
 
Taxation of Distributions on Ordinary Shares
 
We currently do not expect to make distributions on our ordinary shares. Subject to the discussion below under “—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules,” any distributions paid on our ordinary shares (other than certain pro-rata distributions of ordinary shares) will be treated as dividends to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles). Because we do not calculate our earnings and profits under U.S. federal income tax principles, it is expected that distributions generally will be reported to U.S. Holders as dividends.

S - 18

 
Individuals and other non-corporate U.S. Holders will be subject to tax on any such dividends at the lower capital gains tax rate applicable to “qualified dividend income,” provided that certain conditions are satisfied, including that (i) the ordinary shares on which the dividends are paid are readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States or we are eligible for the benefits of the income tax treaty between Israel and the United States, (ii) we are not a PFIC nor treated as such with respect to a U.S. Holder (as discussed below) for either our taxable year in which the dividend was paid or for the preceding taxable year, and (iii) certain holding period requirements are met. For this purpose, the ordinary shares will generally be considered to be readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States as long as they remain listed on the Nasdaq. Non-corporate U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the availability of these favorable rates on dividends in their particular circumstances. Dividends will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction generally available to U.S. corporations in respect of dividends received from other U.S. corporations under the Code and will generally be included in a U.S. Holder’s income on the date of actual or constructive receipt.
 
Dividend income will include any amounts withheld in respect of Israeli taxes and will be treated as foreign source income for foreign tax credit purposes. Subject to applicable limitations, some of which vary depending upon the U.S. Holder’s circumstances, Israeli taxes withheld from dividends on our ordinary shares will be creditable against the U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. The rules governing foreign tax credits are complex and U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the creditability of foreign taxes in their particular circumstances. In lieu of claiming a foreign tax credit, U.S. Holders may elect to deduct foreign taxes (including Israeli taxes) in computing their taxable income, subject to applicable limitations. An election to deduct foreign taxes instead of claiming foreign tax credits applies to all foreign taxes paid or accrued in the taxable year.
 
If any dividend is paid in foreign currency, the amount of dividend income will be the dividend’s U.S. dollar amount calculated by reference to the exchange rate in effect on the date of receipt, regardless of whether the payment is in fact converted into U.S. dollars. If the dividend is converted into U.S. dollars on the date of receipt, a U.S. Holder should not be required to recognize foreign currency gain or loss in respect of the dividend income. A U.S. Holder may have foreign currency gain or loss if the dividend is converted into U.S. dollars after the date of receipt. Such gain or loss would generally be treated as U.S.-source ordinary income or loss.
 
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Ordinary Shares
 
Subject to the discussion below under “Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules,” gain or loss realized on the sale or other taxable disposition of our ordinary shares will be capital gain or loss and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder held the ordinary shares for more than one year. The amount of the gain or loss will equal the difference between the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the ordinary shares disposed of and the amount realized on the disposition. This gain or loss will generally be U.S. source gain or loss for foreign tax credit purposes. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
 
Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules
 
There is a risk that we may be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year. The application of the PFIC rules to a company like us is subject to uncertainties, and for the reasons described below, we cannot express a view as to whether we will be a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year. In general, a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC for any taxable year in which (i) 75% or more of its gross income consists of passive income, or the income test, or (ii) 50% or more of the average value of its assets consists of assets (generally determined on a quarterly basis) that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income, or the assets test. Generally, passive income includes interest, dividends, rents, royalties and certain gains, and cash is a passive asset for PFIC purposes.
 
The assets shown on our balance sheet consist, and are expected to continue to consist, primarily of cash and cash equivalents for the foreseeable future. Further, the cash we raise in this offering will generally be considered to be held for the production of passive income and thus will be considered a passive asset. Therefore, whether we will satisfy the assets test for the current or any future taxable year will depend largely on the quarterly value of our goodwill and on how quickly we utilize our cash in our business. Because (i) the value of our goodwill may be determined by reference to the market price of our ordinary shares, which has been, and may continue to be volatile given the nature and early stage of our business, (ii) we hold, and expect to continue to hold, a significant amount of cash, and (iii) a company’s annual PFIC status can be determined only after the end of each taxable year, we cannot express a view as to whether we will be a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year. In addition, it is not clear how to apply the income test to a company like us, which is still developing its key intangible assets and whose overall losses from research activities significantly exceed the amount of its income (including passive income). If our losses from research and development activities are disregarded for purposes of the income test, we may be a PFIC for any taxable year if 75% or more of our gross income (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) for the relevant year is from interest and financial investments. Because the revenue shown on our financial statements is not calculated based on U.S. tax principles, and because for any taxable year we may not have sufficient (or any) non-passive revenue, there is a risk that we may be or become a PFIC under the income test for any taxable year.

S - 19

 
For purposes of the PFIC rules for any taxable year, a non-U.S. corporation that directly or indirectly owns at least 25% by value of the shares of another corporation is treated as if it held its proportionate share of the assets of the other corporation and received directly its proportionate share of the income of the other corporation.
 
Under attribution rules, if we were a PFIC for any taxable year and had any subsidiaries or other entities in which we held a direct or indirect equity interest that are also PFICs, or Lower-tier PFICs, U.S. Holders would be deemed to own their proportionate share of any such Lower-tier PFICs and would be subject to U.S. federal income tax according to the rules described in the following paragraph on (i) certain distributions by a Lower-tier PFIC and (ii) a disposition of shares of a Lower-tier PFIC, in each case as if the U.S. Holders held such shares or equity interests directly, even if the U.S. Holders do not receive the proceeds of those distributions or dispositions.
 
If we were a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder held our ordinary shares, an adverse tax regime would apply to the U.S. Holder’s investment in our ordinary shares. Generally, gain recognized upon a taxable disposition (including, under certain circumstances, a pledge) of ordinary shares by the U.S. Holder would be allocated ratably over the U.S. Holder’s holding period for such ordinary shares. The amounts allocated to the taxable year of disposition and to taxable years prior to the first taxable year in which we were a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income. The amount allocated to each other taxable year would be subject to tax at the highest tax rate in effect for that taxable year for individuals or corporations, as appropriate, and an interest charge would be imposed on the resulting tax liability for each such year. Further, to the extent that any distribution received by a U.S. Holder on ordinary shares exceeded 125% of the average of the annual distributions received on such ordinary shares during the preceding three years or the U.S. Holder’s holding period, whichever is shorter, that distribution would be subject to taxation in the same manner.
 
If we were a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. Holder owns ordinary shares, we generally would continue to be treated as a PFIC with respect to such U.S. Holder’s ordinary shares unless (a) we ceased to be a PFIC and (b) the U.S. Holder has made a deemed sale election under the PFIC rules which may result in recognition of gain (but not loss), taxable under the PFIC rules described above, without the receipt of any corresponding cash.
 
Alternatively, if we were a PFIC and if the ordinary shares were regularly traded on a qualified exchange, a U.S. Holder might be able to make a mark-to-market election with respect to our ordinary shares (but generally not with respect to Lower-tier PFICs, if any) that would result in tax treatment different from the general tax treatment for PFICs described above. The ordinary shares would be treated as regularly traded in any calendar year in which more than a de minimis quantity of the ordinary shares were traded on a qualified exchange on at least 15 days during each calendar quarter. The Nasdaq, where our ordinary shares are listed, is a qualified exchange for this purpose. If a U.S. Holder makes the mark-to-market election, the U.S. Holder generally will recognize in each year that we are a PFIC as ordinary income any excess of the fair market value of the ordinary shares at the end of the taxable year over their adjusted tax basis, and will recognize an ordinary loss in respect of any excess of the adjusted tax basis of the ordinary shares over their fair market value at the end of the taxable year (but only to the extent of the net amount of income previously included as a result of the mark-to-market election). If a U.S. Holder makes the election, the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the ordinary shares will be adjusted to reflect these income or loss amounts. In addition, if a U.S. Holder makes the mark-to-market election, any gain that the U.S. Holder recognizes on the sale or other disposition of ordinary shares in a year in which we are a PFIC will be treated as ordinary income and any loss will be treated as an ordinary loss (but only to the extent of the net amount of income previously included as a result of the mark-to-market election). U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the availability and advisability of making a mark-to-market election in their particular circumstances.

S - 20

 
We have not determined whether, if we were to be classified as a PFIC for a taxable year, we will provide information necessary for a U.S. Holder to make a “qualified electing fund” election which, if available, would result in tax treatment different from (and generally less adverse than) the general tax treatment for PFICs described above. Accordingly, U.S. Holders should assume that they will not be able to make a qualified electing fund election with respect to the ordinary shares.
 
If we were a PFIC or, with respect to a particular U.S. Holder, were treated as a PFIC for the taxable year in which we pay a dividend or the prior taxable year, the preferential rates discussed above with respect to dividends paid to certain non-corporate U.S. Holders of our ordinary shares would not apply. In addition, if we were a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder owns ordinary shares, the U.S. Holder would be required to file annual reports with the IRS, subject to certain exceptions.
 
U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the potential application of the PFIC rules to their ownership in our ordinary shares.
 
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
 
Payments of distributions and sales proceeds that are made within the United States or through certain U.S. related financial intermediaries generally are subject to information reporting, and may be subject to backup withholding, unless (i) the U.S. Holder is a corporation or other exempt recipient or (ii) in the case of backup withholding, the U.S. Holder provides a correct taxpayer identification number and certifies that it is not subject to backup withholding. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. The amount of any backup withholding from a payment to a U.S. Holder will be allowed as a credit against the U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability and may entitle it to a refund, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
 
Information with Respect to Foreign Financial Assets
 
Certain U.S. Holders may be required to file information returns with respect to their investment in ordinary shares. For example, U.S. Holders who are individuals and certain specified entities may be required to report information relating to the ordinary shares, unless the ordinary shares are held in an account maintained by a financial institution (in which case the account itself may be reportable if maintained by a non-U.S. financial institution). U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their reporting obligations with respect to their ownership and disposition of the ordinary shares. 
 
S - 21


 
LEGAL MATTERS
 
The validity of the issuance of our ordinary shares offered in this prospectus and certain matters of Israeli law will be passed upon for us by Herzog, Fox & Neeman, Tel Aviv, Israel, our Israeli counsel. Certain matters of U.S. federal and New York State law will be passed upon for us by Greenberg Traurig, LLP. B. Riley Securities, Inc. is being represented in connection with this offering by Duane Morris LLP, New York, New York.
 
EXPERTS
 
The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in note 1d to the financial statements) of Kesselman & Kesselman, Certified Public Accountants (Isr.), a member firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
 
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
 
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act. Accordingly, we are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s website is www.sec.gov.
 
We make available free of charge on or through our website, www.enterabio.com, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with or otherwise furnish it to the SEC.
 
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to the securities offered under this prospectus. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. If a document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, we refer you to the copy of the document that has been filed. Each statement in this prospectus relating to a document filed as an exhibit is qualified in all respects by the filed exhibit. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement for free at www.sec.gov. The registration statement and the documents referred to below under “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” are also available on our website, www.enterabio.com.
 
Information contained on or accessible through our website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus and does not constitute a part hereof.
 
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
 
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we have filed with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to the documents containing such information. The information we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future documents (excluding information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02, 7.01 and 9.01 of Form 8-K or any other information that is identified as “furnished” rather than filed) we file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act subsequent to the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering:
 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 8, 2022 as amended by our Form 10-K/A Amendment No. 1 filed with the SEC on April 29, 2022;
 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on May 12, 2022; and
 

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K (not including any information furnished under Item 2.02, 7.01 or 9.01 of such Form 8-K or any other information that is identified as “furnished” rather than filed, which information is not incorporated by reference herein), filed with the SEC on May 16, 2022 and May 27, 2022; and
 

The description of our ordinary shares contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed on June 25, 2018, and any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description, including without limitation, Exhibit 2.2 of our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on March 18, 2021.
 
S - 22


All filings filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement (excluding information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02, 7.01 and 9.01 of Form 8-K or any other information that is identified as “furnished” rather than filed) shall also be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
 
You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. Any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for the purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a later statement contained in this prospectus or in any other document incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
 
We will provide without charge to each person to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the reports or documents that have been incorporated by reference in this prospectus but not delivered with this prospectus (other than an exhibit to these filings, unless we have specifically incorporated that exhibit by reference in this prospectus). Any such request should be addressed to us at: Kiryat Hadassah, Minrav Building - Fifth Floor, Jerusalem, Israel, Attention: Spiros Jamas, Chief Executive Officer, or made by phone at +972-2-532-7151. You may also access the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus through our website at www.enterabio.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.
 
S - 23

 
 
5,000,000 Ordinary Shares



Prospectus
 


 
B. Riley Securities
 
       , 2022
 



PART II
 
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS
 
Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
 
The following table sets forth the expenses (other than underwriting discounts and commissions or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation, if any) expected to be incurred by us in connection with a possible offering of securities registered under this registration statement.
 
SEC registration fee*
 
$
*
 
FINRA filing fee
 
$
4,420.03
 
Printing and engraving expenses**
 
$
5,000
 
Legal fees and expenses**
 
$
80,000
 
Accounting fees and expenses**
 
$
35,000
 
Miscellaneous**
 
$
25,000
 
Total*
 
$
149,420.03
 

                                              
*
Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the securities registered pursuant to this registration statement include unsold securities previously registered on the Company’s Registration Statement on Form F-3 (No. 333-239843) filed on July 13, 2020, and declared effective on July 22, 2020 (the “Prior Registration Statement”). The filing fees previously paid in connection with such unsold securities in the aggregate value of $73,866,498.00 and the Prior Registration Statement will continue to be applied to such unsold securities and the Company will pay an additional fee of $2,422.58 in connection with the filing of this Registration Statement on Form S-3.
 
**
Estimated
 
Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers
 
General.   Our amended and restated articles of incorporation (the “Articles”) set forth the following provisions regarding the grant of insurance coverage, indemnification and an exemption from liability to any of our directors or officers, all subject to the provisions of applicable law. In accordance with such provisions and pursuant to the requisite corporate approvals, we have obtained liability insurance covering our directors and officers, have granted indemnification undertakings to our directors and officers and have agreed to exempt our directors and officers from liability in each case, to the fullest extent permitted by our Articles and applicable law, including with respect to liabilities resulting from this offering to the extent that these liabilities are not covered by insurance.
 
Insurance.   We are entitled to insure the liability of any director or officer to the fullest extent permitted by law. Without derogating from the aforesaid, we may enter into a contract to insure the liability of a director or officer for an obligation imposed on him or her in consequence of an act done in his or her capacity as such, in any of the following cases:
 

a breach of the duty of care toward us or a third party, to the extent such a breach arises out of the negligent conduct of the office holder;
 

a breach of the duty of loyalty toward us, provided that the director or officer acted in good faith and had reasonable basis to believe that the act would not harm us;
 

a monetary obligation imposed on him or her in favor of a third party in respect of an act done in his or her capacity as an office holder in respect of an act done in his or her capacity as an office holder;
 

a payment imposed on him or her in favor of an injured party as set forth in Section 52(54)(a)(1)(a) of the Israeli Securities Law; or
 

reasonable litigation expenses, including attorney fees, incurred by him or her in connection with a proceeding under Chapters H’3, H’4 or I’l of the Israeli Securities Law or under Article D of the Fourth Chapter, Ninth Part of the Companies Law, if applicable, including reasonable legal expenses, which term includes attorney fees.
 


Indemnification.   We are entitled to indemnify a director or officer to the fullest extent permitted by law, either retroactively or pursuant to an undertaking given in advance. Without derogating from the aforesaid, we may indemnify our directors or officers for liability or expense imposed on him or her in consequence of an action taken by him in his capacity as such, as follows:
 

a financial obligation or liability imposed on or incurred in favor of another person and/or legal entity, including by any government office, or expended as a result of a court judgment, including in a settlement or an arbitrator’s decision approved by a court of law, in respect of any act or omission taken or made by him or her in his or her capacity as a director or an officer of the Company of any of its subsidiaries. However, if an undertaking to indemnify an office holder with respect to such liability is provided in advance, then such an undertaking must be limited to events which, in the opinion of the board of directors, can be foreseen based on the company’s activities when the undertaking to indemnify is given, and to an amount or according to criteria determined by the board of directors as reasonable under the circumstances, and such undertaking shall detail such foreseen events and amount or criteria;
 

reasonable legal expenses, including attorney’s fees, expended by him or her as a result of an investigation or proceeding instituted against him or her by a competent authority, provided that such investigation or proceeding concluded without the filing of an indictment against him or her and without any financial liability imposed on him or her in lieu of criminal proceedings, or that is concluded with the imposition of a financial liability in lieu of criminal proceedings but relates to a criminal offense that does not require proof of criminal intent or in connection with a financial sanction imposed on him or her in his or her capacity as a director or an officer of the Company or of any of its subsidiaries;
 

reasonable legal expenses, including attorney’s fees, and all other costs, expenses and obligations incurred in connection with investigating, defending, being a witness in or participating in (including on appeal), or preparing to defend in or participate, in any action, suit, proceeding, alternative dispute resolution mechanism, hearing, inquiry or investigation brought against him or her by the Company or on its behalf or by another person or in any criminal prosecution in which he or she was acquitted, or in a criminal prosecution of a crime which does not require proof of criminal intent, in which he or she was convicted, all in respect of actions taken by him or her in his or her capacity as a director or an officer of the Company or of any of its subsidiaries;
 

a payment he or she was obligated to make to an injured party as set forth in Section 52(54)(a)(1)(a) of the Israeli Securities Law;
 

reasonable litigation expenses, including attorney fees, incurred by the director or officer in connection with a proceeding under Chapters H’3, H’4 or I’1 of the Israeli Securities Law; or
 

any other circumstances arising under the law in respect of which the Company may indemnify a director or an officer of the Company (including, without limitation, Section 50P(b)(2) of the Israeli Restrictive Trade Practices Law, 5758-1988).
 
Exemption.   We are entitled to exempt a director or officer in advance from any or all of his or her liability for damage caused by a breach of his or her duty of care toward us, to the fullest extent permitted by law, but only if a provision authorizing such exculpation is included in its articles of association. Our Articles include such a provision. Notwithstanding, a company may not exculpate in advance a director from liability arising out of a breach of duty of care caused by dividend or distribution to shareholders.
 
Limitations.   The Companies Law provides that a company may not provide its directors or officers with insurance or indemnification or exempt its directors or officers from liability with respect to the following:
 

a breach of the duty of loyalty to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, except to the extent permitted by the Companies Law, with respect to insurance coverage or indemnification for a breach of the duty of loyalty to the Company or any of its subsidiaries while acting in good faith and having reasonable cause to assume that such act would not prejudice the interest of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, as applicable;
 

a willful or reckless breach of the duty of care, other than a breach committed solely by negligence;
 

an action taken or not taken with the intent of unlawfully realizing personal gain; or
 
II - 2



a fine, monetary sanction, forfeit or penalty levied against, or imposed upon, the office holder.
 
Item 16. Exhibits
 
The following exhibits are filed herewith:
 
Exhibit Index
 
Exhibit No.
Document
 
1.1*
Form of Underwriting Agreement
4.3*
Form of Senior Note
4.4*
Form of Subordinated Note
4.5*
Form of Warrant Agreement
4.6*
Form of Purchase Contract Agreement
4.7*
Form of Unit Agreement
25.1***
Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 for Senior Indenture
25.2***
Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 for Subordinated Indenture
__________________
 
* To be filed, if necessary, as an exhibit to a post-effective amendment to this registration statement or as an exhibit to a report filed or submitted pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference.
** Pursuant to Item 601(a)(5) of Regulation S-K, schedules and similar attachments to this exhibit have been omitted because they do not contain information material to an investment or voting decision and such information is not otherwise disclosed in such exhibit. The Company will supplementally provide a copy of any omitted schedule or similar attachment to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission or its staff upon request.
 *** To be filed, if applicable, separately on Form 305B2 in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.
 
II - 3


Item 17. Undertakings
 
(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
 
(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
 
(i) To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
 
(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement.
 
(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
 
Provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
 
(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
 
(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
 
(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
 
(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
 
(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
 
(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
 
(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

II - 4

 
(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
 
(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
 
(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
 
(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant's annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan's annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
 
(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
 
II - 5


SIGNATURES
 
    Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Jerusalem, Israel, on May 27, 2022. 
 
  ENTERA BIO LTD.  
       

By:
/s/ Spiros Jamas  
    Spiros Jamas  
   
Chief Executive Officer
(on behalf of the registrant
and as Principal Executive Officer)
 
       

II - 6


POWER OF ATTORNEY
 
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Spiros Jamas and Miranda J. Toledano, and each of them acting individually, such person’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agent, with full powers of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement, and to file the same, with exhibits thereto, and all other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto each said attorneys-in-fact and agent or either of them or their or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

Name
 
Title
 
Date
         
/s/ Spiros Jamas
       
Spiros Jamas
 
Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer)
 
May 27, 2022
         
/s/ Miranda J. Toledano
       
Miranda J. Toledano
 
Chief Business Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Head of Corporate Strategy
and Director (Principal Financial Officer)
 
 May 27, 2022
 
/s/ Dana Yaacov-Garbeli
       
Dana Yaacov-Garbeli
 
Israel-based Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Accounting Officer)
 
May 27, 2022

/s/ Gerald Lieberman
       
Gerald Lieberman
 
Director, Chairman of the Board of Directors
 
May 27, 2022
         
/s/ Dr. Roger J. Garceau
       
Dr. Roger J. Garceau
 
Director
 
May 27, 2022
         
/s/ Gerald M. Ostrov
       
Gerald M. Ostrov
 
Director
 
 May 27, 2022
         
/s/ Yonatan Malca
       
Yonatan Malca
 
Director
 
 May 27, 2022
         
/s/ Ron Mayron
       
Ron Mayron
 
 
Director
 
 May 27, 2022
/s/ Sean Ellis
       
Sean Ellis
 
Director
 
 May 27, 2022
 
/s/ Dr. Phillip Schwartz
       
Dr. Phillip Schwartz
 
President of Research and Development and Director
 
May 27, 2022


II - 7


Exhibit 1.2

ENTERA BIO LTD.
 
Ordinary Shares
(par value NIS 0.0000769 per share)

Amended and Restated
At Market Issuance Sales Agreement
 
May 27, 2022
 
B. Riley Securities, Inc.
299 Park Avenue, 21st Floor
New York, NY 10171

Ladies and Gentlemen:
 
Entera Bio Ltd., an Israeli company (the “Company”) and B. Riley Securities, Inc. (the “Agent”) are parties to that certain At Market Issuance Sales Agreement dated May 7, 2021 (the “Original Sales Agreement”). The Company and the Agent desire to amend and restate the Original Sales Agreement with this Agreement (the “Agreement”), and hereby agree as follows:
 
1.          Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through or to the Agent, as sales agent or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”); of the Company’s ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.0000769 per share (the “Ordinary Shares”); provided however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through the Agent such number of Placement Shares that (a) exceeds the number of shares or dollar amount of Ordinary Shares registered on the effective Registration Statement (as defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made or (b) exceeds the number of shares or dollar amount registered on the Prospectus (as defined below) (the lesser of (a) or (b) the “Maximum Amount”) and provided further, however, that in no event shall the aggregate number of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement exceed the number of authorized but unissued Ordinary Shares. The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue any Placement Shares.
 

The Company shall file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Securities Act”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating certain securities including the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared or will prepare a prospectus or prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “ATM Prospectus”). The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the ATM Prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by any prospectus supplement relating to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B of the Securities Act, or any subsequent registration statement on Form S-3 filed pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act by the Company to cover any Placement Shares, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The ATM Prospectus, including all documents incorporated or deemed incorporated therein by reference to the extent such information has not been superseded or modified in accordance with Rule 412 under the Securities Act (as qualified by Rule 430B(g) of the Securities Act), included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by any prospectus supplement relating to the Placement Shares, in the form in which such ATM Prospectus and/or prospectus supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”).
 
For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).
 
2.            Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by electronic mail (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 3 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Agent set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule 3 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective immediately upon receipt by the Agent unless and until (i) the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder has been sold, (iii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice, which suspension and termination rights may be exercised by the Company in its sole discretion, or (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 13. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 2.  It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of Sections 2 or 3 of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.
 
2

3.           Sale of Placement Shares by the Agent.  Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, for the period specified in a Placement Notice, the Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Capital Market (the “Exchange”), to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. Subject to the terms of a Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act. “Trading Day” means any day on which shares of Ordinary Shares are purchased and sold on the Exchange.
 
4.           Suspension of Sales. The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a Suspension is in effect, any obligation under Sections 7(k), 7(l), and 7(m) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Agent, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 3 hereto, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time.
 
5.            Sale and Delivery to the Agent; Settlement.
 
a.          Sale of Placement Shares. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Exchange to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Exchange to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Agent and the Company.
 
3

b.          Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The Agent shall notify the Company of each sale of Placement Shares no later than opening day following the Trading Day that the Agent sold Placement Shares. The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Agent, after deduction for (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.
 
c.          Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee and such designee’s account information at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of the Agent, then in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 11(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable, documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (ii) pay to the Agent (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.
 
d.          Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate number of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount, (B) the amount available for offer and sale under the currently effective Registration Statement and (C) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agent in writing.  Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agent in writing.
 
4

6.           Representations and Warranties of the Company. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus (including the Incorporated Documents), the Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with the Agent that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below), unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies a different date or time:
 
a.          Registration Statement and Prospectus. The transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the conditions for the use of Form S‑3 under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been filed with the Commission and, before the Company delivers any Placement Notice hereunder, will have been declared effective under the Securities Act. The ATM Prospectus will name the Agent as the agent in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Company has not received, and has no notice of, any order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, or threatening or instituting proceedings for that purpose. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said Rule. Any statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement have been so described or filed, as applicable. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any such amendments or supplements and all documents incorporated by reference therein that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered to the Agent and its counsel or are available through EDGAR. The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the distribution of the Placement Shares, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) to which the Agent has consented, which consent will not be unreasonably withheld or delayed, or that is required by applicable law or the listing maintenance requirements of the Exchange. The Ordinary Shares are currently quoted on the Exchange under the trading symbol “ENTX”. The Company has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from the Exchange to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of the Exchange. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements.
 
b.          No Misstatement or Omission. At each Settlement Date, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of such date, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, did not, and will not, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any amendment and supplement thereto, on the date thereof and at each Applicable Time (defined below), did not or will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus did not, and any further documents filed and incorporated by reference therein will not, when filed with the Commission, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing shall not apply to statements in, or omissions from, any such document made in reliance upon, and in conformity with, information furnished to the Company by the Agent specifically for use in the preparation thereof.
 
5

c.           Conformity with Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, and the Incorporated Documents, when such documents were or are filed with the Commission under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or became or become effective under the Securities Act, as the case may be, conformed or will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable.
 
d.          Financial Information. The consolidated financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related notes and schedules, present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and the Subsidiaries (as defined below) as of the dates indicated and the consolidated results of operations, cash flows and changes in stockholders’ equity of the Company and the Subsidiaries for the periods specified (subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal year-end audit adjustments which will not be material, either individually or in the aggregate) and have been prepared in compliance with the published requirements of the Securities Act and Exchange Act, as applicable, and in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis (except (i) for such adjustments to accounting standards and practices as are noted therein and (ii) in the case of unaudited interim statements, to the extent they may exclude footnotes or may be condensed or summary statements) during the periods involved; the other financial and statistical data with respect to the Company and the Subsidiaries contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, are accurately and fairly presented and prepared on a basis consistent with the financial statements and books and records of the Company; there are no financial statements (historical or pro forma) that are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, or the Prospectus that are not included or incorporated by reference as required; the Company and the Subsidiaries do not have any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent (including any off balance sheet obligations), not described in the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus which are required to be described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus; and all disclosures contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, if any, regarding “non--GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply in all material respects with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable.
 
e.          Conformity with EDGAR Filing. The Prospectus delivered to the Agent for use in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement will be identical to the versions of the Prospectus created to be transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.
 
6

f.           Organization. (i) The Company and any subsidiary that is a significant subsidiary (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated by the Commission) (each, a “Subsidiary,” collectively, the “Subsidiaries”), are duly organized and validly existing under the laws of Israel or under the laws of their jurisdictions, respectively, and have all requisite power and authority to carry on their businesses as are currently being conducted as described in the Prospectus, and to own, lease and operate their respective properties. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries is duly qualified as a foreign entity to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure, individually or in the aggregate, to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on (i) the assets, properties, condition, financial or otherwise or in the results of operations, business affairs or business prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole, (ii) the transactions contemplated hereby or (iii) the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement (collectively, a “Material Adverse Effect”); and to the Company’s knowledge, no proceeding has been instituted revoking, limiting, or curtailing, or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail, such power and authority or qualification. The Company is not designated as a “breaching company” (within the meaning of the Israeli Companies Law, 5759-1999, the “Companies Law”) by the Registrar of Companies of the State of Israel (the “Israeli Registrar”). The certificate of incorporation and articles of association and other organizational documents of the Company comply with the requirements of applicable law of its jurisdiction of incorporation and are in full force and effect.
 
g.          Subsidiaries.  The Company owns directly or indirectly, all of the equity interests of the Subsidiaries free and clear of any lien, charge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal or other restriction, and all the equity interests of the Subsidiaries are validly issued and are fully paid, nonassessable and free of preemptive and similar rights.  The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the most recently ended fiscal year and other than (i) those subsidiaries not required to be listed on Exhibit 21.1 by Item 601 of Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act and (ii) those subsidiaries formed since the last day of the most recently ended fiscal year.
 
h.          No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other similar agreement or instrument to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. To the Company’s knowledge, no other party under any material contract or other agreement to which it or any Subsidiary is a party is in default in any respect thereunder where such default would have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
7

i.           No Material Adverse Effect. Since the date of the most recent financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, except in each case as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, there has not been (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that would result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) any transaction which is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, (iii) any obligation or liability, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), incurred by the Company or the Subsidiaries, which is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, (iv) any material change in the capital stock (other than (A) the grant of additional options under the Company’s existing stock option plans, (B) changes in the number of outstanding Ordinary Shares of the Company due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities exercisable for, or convertible into, Ordinary Shares outstanding on the date hereof, (C) as a result of the issuance of Placement Shares, (D) any repurchases of capital stock of the Company, (E) as described in a proxy statement filed on Schedule 14A or a Registration Statement on Form S-4, or (F) otherwise publicly announced) or outstanding long-term indebtedness of the Company or the Subsidiaries or (v) any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made on the capital stock of the Company or any Subsidiary, other than in each case above in the ordinary course of business or as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus (including any document incorporated by reference therein).
 
j.          Capitalization. The issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been validly issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and, other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, are not subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or similar rights. The Company has an authorized, issued and outstanding capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as of the dates referred to therein (other than (i) the grant of additional options under the Company’s existing stock option plans, (ii) changes in the number of outstanding Ordinary Shares of the Company due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities exercisable for, or convertible into, Ordinary Shares outstanding on the date hereof, (iii) as a result of the issuance of Placement Shares, or (iv) any repurchases of capital stock of the Company) and such authorized capital stock conforms to the description thereof set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The description of the Ordinary Shares in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is complete and accurate in all material respects. Except as disclosed or incorporated by reference in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company did not have outstanding any options to purchase, or any rights or warrants to subscribe for, or any securities or obligations convertible into, or exchangeable for, or any contracts or commitments to issue or sell, any shares of capital stock or other securities.
 
k.          S-3 Eligibility.  (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement and (ii) at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment, incorporated report filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or form of prospectus), the Company met the then applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including compliance with General Instruction I.B.1 or I.B.6 of Form S-3, as applicable. As of the close of trading on the Exchange on April 19, 2022, the aggregate market value of the outstanding voting and non-voting common equity (as defined in Rule 405) of the Company held by persons other than affiliates of the Company (pursuant to Rule 144 of the Securities Act, those that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control, or are controlled by, or are under common control with, the Company)  (the “Non-Affiliate Shares”), was approximately $71.4 million (calculated by multiplying (x) the price at which the common equity of the Company was last sold on the Exchange on April 19, 2022 times (y) the number of Non-Affiliate Shares).
 
8

l.          Authorization; Enforceability. The Company has full legal right, power and authority to enter into this Agreement and perform the transactions contemplated hereby. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except to the extent that (i) enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles and (ii) the indemnification and contribution provisions of Section 11 hereof may be limited by federal or state securities laws and public policy considerations in respect thereof.
 
m.         Authorization of Placement Shares. The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered pursuant to the terms approved by the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee thereof, or a duly authorized executive committee, against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly and validly authorized and issued and fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim (other than any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim arising from an act or omission of the Agent or a purchaser), including any statutory or contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights, and will be registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The Placement Shares, when issued, will conform in all material respects to the description thereof set forth in or incorporated into the Prospectus.
 
n.           No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any court or arbitrator or any governmental or regulatory authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, and the issuance and sale by the Company of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby, except for such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications (i) as may be required under applicable state securities laws or by the by-laws and rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) or the Exchange, including any notices that may be required by the Exchange, or formal filings and reports with the Israel Innovation Authority (formerly the Office of the Chief Scientist) of the Israeli Ministry of Economy and Industry, and certain post-closing filings to be filed with the Israeli Registrar of Companies, in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares by the Agent, (ii) as may be required under the Securities Act and (iii) as have been previously obtained by the Company.
 
o.           No Preferential Rights. (i) No person, as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act (each, a “Person”), has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company to issue or sell to such Person any Ordinary Shares or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company (other than upon the exercise of options or warrants to purchase Ordinary Shares or upon the exercise of options that may be granted from time to time under the Company’s stock option plan), (ii) no Person has any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal, or any other rights (whether pursuant to a “poison pill” provision or otherwise) to purchase any Ordinary Shares or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company from the Company which have not been duly waived with respect to the offering contemplated hereby, (iii) no Person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Ordinary Shares, and (iv) no Person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to require the Company to register under the Securities Act any Ordinary Shares or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, or to include any such shares or other securities in the Registration Statement or the offering contemplated thereby, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated thereby or otherwise, except in each case for such rights as have been waived on or prior to the date hereof or as may described in the Prospectus, including the documents incorporated therein by reference.
 
9

p.           Independent Public Accountant.  Kesselman & Kesselman, a member firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited (the “Accountant”), whose report on the consolidated financial statements of the Company is filed with the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated into the Registration Statement, are and, during the periods covered by their report, were independent public accountants within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).
 
q.          Enforceability of Agreements. All agreements between the Company and third parties expressly referenced in the Prospectus, other than such agreements that have expired by their terms or whose termination is disclosed in documents filed by the Company on EDGAR, are legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, enforceable in accordance with their respective terms, except to the extent that (i) enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles and (ii) the indemnification provisions of certain agreements may be limited by federal or state securities laws or public policy considerations in respect thereof, and except for any unenforceability that, individually or in the aggregate, would not have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
r.           No Litigation. There are no legal, governmental or regulatory actions, suits or proceedings pending, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, including any proceeding before the United States Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the “FDA”) or comparable federal, state, local or foreign governmental authorities (it being understood that the interaction between the Company and the FDA and such comparable governmental authorities relating to the clinical development and product approval process shall not be deemed proceedings for purposes of this representation), to which the Company or a Subsidiary is a party or to which any property of the Company or any Subsidiary is the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any Subsidiary, would have a Material Adverse Effect or materially and adversely affect the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement; to the Company’s knowledge, no such actions, suits or proceedings are threatened or contemplated in writing by any governmental or regulatory authority or threatened in writing by others that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any Subsidiary, would have a Material Adverse Effect; and there are no current or pending legal, governmental or regulatory actions, suits, proceedings or, to the Company’s knowledge, investigations that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Prospectus that are not described in the Prospectus (including any Incorporated Document).  The Company is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations, orders and decrees governing its business as enforced by the FDA, or any other federal, state or foreign agencies or bodies engaged in the regulation of medical devices, except where noncompliance would not, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. All preclinical and clinical studies conducted by or on behalf of the Company to support clearance for commercialization of the Company’s products have been conducted by the Company, or to the Company’s knowledge by third parties, in compliance with all applicable federal, state or foreign laws, rules, orders and regulations, except for such failure or failures to be in compliance as would not reasonably be expected to have, singularly or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.
 
10

s.          Licenses and Permits. The Company and the Subsidiaries possess or have obtained, all licenses, certificates, consents, orders, approvals, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as currently conducted, as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (the “Permits”), except where the failure to possess, obtain or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received written notice of any proceeding relating to revocation or modification of any such Permit or has any reason to believe that such Permit will not be renewed in the ordinary course, except where the failure to obtain any such renewal would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
t.           No Material Defaults. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not filed a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act since the filing of its last Annual Report on Form 10-K, indicating that it (i) has failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
u.          CFO Certificate. On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company shall furnish to the Agent a certificate of the Company’s Chief Financial Officer (the “CFO Certificate”), dated the date the CFO Certificate is delivered, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and their counsel.
 
v.          Certain Market Activities. Neither the Company, nor any Subsidiary, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any of their respective directors, officers or controlling persons has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed, or that has constituted or would cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares.
 
w.          Broker/Dealer Relationships. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary or any related entities (i) is required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act or (ii) directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is a “person associated with a member” or “associated person of a member” (within the meaning set forth in the FINRA Manual).
 
11

x.           No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon the Agent or legal counsel for the Agent for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.
 
y.           Taxes. The Company and the Subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns which have been required to be filed and paid all taxes shown thereon through the date hereof, to the extent that such taxes have become due and are not being contested in good faith, except where the failure to do so would not have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as otherwise disclosed in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or any Subsidiary which has had, or would have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has no knowledge of any federal, state or other governmental tax deficiency, penalty or assessment which has been or might be asserted or threatened against it which would have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
z.           Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and valid title in fee simple to all items of real property and good and valid title to all personal property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being owned by them that are material to the businesses of the Company or such Subsidiary, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and claims, except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries or (ii) would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Any real property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being leased by the Company and the Subsidiaries is held by them under valid, existing and enforceable leases, except those that (A) do not materially interfere with the use made or proposed to be made of such property by the Company or the Subsidiaries or (B) would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
aa.         Intellectual Property. Except as described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, the Company and the Subsidiary own or possess adequate enforceable rights to use all patents, patent applications, trademarks (both registered and unregistered), trade names, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, Internet domain name registrations, copyrights, copyright registrations, licenses and know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures) (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”), necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as conducted as of the date hereof, except to the extent that the failure to own or possess adequate rights to use such Intellectual Property would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. In the last two years, the Company and the Subsidiaries have not received any written notice of any claim of infringement or conflict which asserted Intellectual Property rights of others, which infringement or conflict, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, would result in a Material Adverse Effect. There are no pending, or to the Company’s knowledge, threatened judicial proceedings or interference proceedings challenging the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s rights in or to or the validity of the scope of any of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ patents, patent applications or proprietary information. To the Company’s knowledge, no other entity or individual has any right or claim in any of the Company’s or any of its Subsidiary’s patents, patent applications or any patent to be issued therefrom by virtue of any contract, license or other agreement entered into between such entity or individual and the Company or any Subsidiary or by any non-contractual obligation, other than by written licenses granted by the Company or any Subsidiary. In the last two years, the Company has not received any written notice of any claim challenging the rights of the Company or its Subsidiaries in or to any Intellectual Property owned, licensed or optioned by the Company or any Subsidiary which claim, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, would result in a Material Adverse Effect.
 
12

bb.       Compliance with Applicable Laws. The Company and the Subsidiaries: (A) are and at all times have been in material compliance with all statutes, rules and regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product under development, manufactured or distributed by the Company or the Subsidiaries (“Applicable Laws”), (b) have not received any Form 483 from the FDA, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, or other written correspondence or notice from the FDA, the European Medicines Agency (the “EMA”), or any other federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting material noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”), which would, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect; (C) possess all material Authorizations necessary for its operations as currently conducted and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and neither the Company nor the Subsidiaries is in material violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (D) have not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from the FDA, the EMA, or any other federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that any Company product, operation or activity is in material violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations; (E) have not received written notice that the FDA, EMA, or any other federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any material Authorizations; and (F) have filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations except where the failure to file such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments would not result in a Material Adverse Effect, and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were materially complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission).
 
cc.        Clinical Studies. The preclinical studies and clinical trials conducted by the Company or on behalf of the Company were, and, if still pending are, to the Company’s knowledge, being conducted in all material respects in compliance with all Applicable Laws and in accordance with experimental protocols, procedures and controls generally used by qualified experts in the preclinical study and clinical trials of new drugs and biologics as applied to comparable products to those being developed by the Company; the descriptions of the results of such preclinical studies and clinical trials contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects; and the Company has not received any written notices or correspondence from the FDA, the EMA, or any other domestic or foreign governmental agency requiring the termination, suspension or modification of any preclinical studies or clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.
 
13

dd.          Environmental Laws. The Company and the Subsidiaries (i) are in compliance with any and all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, regulations, decisions and orders relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) have received and are in compliance with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and (iii) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, except, in the case of any of clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) above, for any such failure to comply or failure to receive required permits, licenses, other approvals or liability as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
ee.        Disclosure Controls. The Company maintains a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company is not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus). Since the date of the latest audited financial statements of the Company included in the Prospectus, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus). The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s controls and procedures as of a date within 90 days prior to the filing date of the Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the most recent Evaluation Date, and the “disclosure controls and procedures” are effective.
 
ff.          Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply in all material respects with any applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Each of the principal executive officer and the principal financial officer of the Company (or each former principal executive officer of the Company and each former principal financial officer of the Company as applicable) has made all certifications required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act with respect to all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by it or furnished by it to the Commission during the past 12 months. For purposes of the preceding sentence, “principal executive officer” and “principal financial officer” shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15.
 
14

gg.         Finder’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has incurred any liability for any finder’s fees, brokerage commissions or similar payments in connection with the transactions herein contemplated, except as may otherwise exist with respect to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.
 
hh.          Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or any Subsidiary exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened which would result in a Material Adverse Effect.
 
ii.            Investment Company Act. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is or, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares, will be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company,” as such terms are defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).
 
jj.          Operations. The operations of the Company and the Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial record keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions to which the Company or the Subsidiaries are subject, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency having jurisdiction over the Company (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”), except where the failure to be in such compliance would not result in a Material Adverse Effect; and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any Subsidiary with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.
 
kk.          Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements. There are no transactions, arrangements and other relationships between and/or among the Company, and/or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its affiliates and any unconsolidated entity, including, but not limited to, any structured finance, special purpose or limited purpose entity (each, an “Off Balance Sheet Transaction”) that would affect materially the Company’s liquidity or the availability of or requirements for its capital resources, including those Off Balance Sheet Transactions described in the Commission’s Statement about Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations (Release Nos. 33-8056; 34-45321; FR-61), required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus which have not been described as required.
 
ll.            Underwriter Agreements. Other than with respect to this agreement, the Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.
 
15

mm.      ERISA. To the knowledge of the Company, (i) each material employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”) that is maintained, administered or contributed to by the Company or any of its affiliates for employees or former employees of the Company and the Subsidiaries has been maintained in material compliance with its terms and the requirements of applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”); (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred which would result in a material liability to the Company with respect to any such plan excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; and (iii) for each such plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no “accumulated funding deficiency” as defined in Section 412 of the Code has been incurred, whether or not waived, and the fair market value of the assets of each such plan (excluding for these purposes accrued but unpaid contributions) equals or exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such plan determined using reasonable actuarial assumptions, other than, in the case of (i), (ii) and (iii) above, as would not have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
nn.        Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) (a “Forward-Looking Statement”) contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.
 
oo.         Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
 
pp.         Insurance. The Company and the Subsidiaries carry, or are covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as the Company and the Subsidiaries reasonably believe are adequate for the conduct of their business.
 
qq.         No Improper Practices. (i) Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, the Subsidiaries, nor to the Company’s knowledge, any of their respective executive officers has, in the past five years, made any unlawful contributions to any candidate for any political office (or failed fully to disclose any contribution in violation of law) or made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state, municipal, or foreign office or other person charged with similar public or quasi-public duty in violation of any law or of the character required to be disclosed in the Prospectus; (ii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, the Subsidiaries or any affiliate of any of them, on the one hand, and the directors, officers and stockholders of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, the Subsidiaries, on the other hand, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or the Subsidiaries or any affiliate of them, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders or directors of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, the Subsidiaries, on the other hand, that is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iv) there are no material outstanding loans or advances or material guarantees of indebtedness by the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, the Subsidiaries to or for the benefit of any of their respective officers or directors or any of the members of the families of any of them; and (v) the Company has not offered, or caused any placement agent to offer, Ordinary Shares to any person with the intent to influence unlawfully (A) a customer or supplier of the Company or the Subsidiaries to alter the customer’s or supplier’s level or type of business with the Company or the Subsidiaries or (B) a trade journalist or publication to write or publish favorable information about the Company or the Subsidiaries or any of their respective products or services, and, (vi) neither the Company nor the Subsidiaries nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee or agent of the Company or the Subsidiaries has made any payment of funds of the Company or the Subsidiaries or received or retained any funds in violation of any law, rule or regulation (including, without limitation, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977), which payment, receipt or retention of funds is of a character required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.
 
16

rr.          Status Under the Securities Act. The Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act at the times specified in Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares.
 
ss.          No Misstatement or Omission in an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 25 below), did not, does not and will not, through the completion of the Placement or Placements for which such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus is issued, include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any incorporated document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent specifically for use therein.
 
tt.           No Conflicts. Neither the execution of this Agreement, nor the issuance, offering or sale of the Placement Shares, nor the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated herein, nor the compliance by the Company with the terms and provisions hereof will conflict with, or will result in a breach of, any of the terms and provisions of, or has constituted or will constitute a default under, or has resulted in or will result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to the terms of any contract or other agreement to which the Company may be bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject, except (i) such conflicts, breaches or defaults as may have been waived and (ii) such conflicts, breaches and defaults that would not have a Material Adverse Effect; nor will such action result (x) in any violation of the provisions of the organizational or governing documents of the Company, or (y) in any material violation of the provisions of any statute or any order, rule or regulation applicable to the Company or of any court or of any federal, state or other regulatory authority or other government body having jurisdiction over the Company, except where such violation would not have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
uu.          OFAC.
 
(i)          Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary (collectively, the “Entity”) nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or representative of the Entity, is a government, individual, or entity (in this paragraph (uu), “Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is:
 
(a)          the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council (“UNSC”), the European Union (“EU”), Her Majesty’s Treasury (“HMT”), or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor
 
17

(b)          located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions.
 
(ii)          The Entity will not, directly or indirectly, knowingly use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person:
 
(a)          to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions; or
 
(b)          in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).
 
(iii)        The Entity represents and covenants that, except as detailed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, for the past 5 years, it has not knowingly engaged in and is not now knowingly engaged in any dealing or transactions with any Person, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.
 
vv.         Stock Transfer Taxes. On each Settlement Date, all material stock transfer or other taxes (other than income taxes) which are required to be paid in connection with the sale and transfer of the Placement Shares to be sold hereunder will be, or will have been, fully paid or provided for by the Company and all laws imposing such taxes will be or will have been fully complied with by the Company in all material respects.
 
ww.        IT Systems. (i)(x) To the knowledge of Company, there has been no security breach or other compromise of any Company’s information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of them), equipment or technology (collectively, “IT Systems and Data”) and (y) the Company has not been notified of, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in, any security breach or other compromise to their IT Systems and Data; (ii) the Company is presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification, except as would not, in the case of this clause (ii), individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) the Company has implemented backup and disaster recovery technology consistent with industry standards and practices.
 
18

xx.         Compliance with Data Privacy Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries are, and, since January 1, 2020 were, in material compliance with all applicable state and federal data privacy and security laws and regulations, including, without limitation, HIPAA, CCPA, and the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (EU 2016/679) (collectively, the “Privacy Laws”). Neither the Company nor any subsidiary: (i) has received notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice; (ii) is currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation, or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law; or (iii) is a party to any order, decree, or agreement that imposes any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law.
 
Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company, as applicable, to the Agent as to the matters set forth therein.
 
7.            Covenants of the Company.  The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent that:
 
a.          Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act) (the “Prospectus Delivery Period”) (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference or amendments not related to any Placement, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus related to the Placement or for additional information related to the Placement, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, upon the advice of the Company’s legal counsel, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares (other than an Incorporated Document) unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that (A) the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and (B) the Company has no obligation to provide the Agent any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Agent an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name the Agent or does not relate to the transaction herein provided; and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act or, in the case of any document to be incorporated therein by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).
 
19

b.          Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.
 
c.          Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430A under the Securities Act, it will use its commercially reasonable efforts to comply with the provisions of and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430A and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings. If during the Prospectus Delivery Period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such Prospectus Delivery Period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if in the judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company.
 
d.          Listing of Placement Shares. During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Exchange and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions in the United States as the Agent reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities, file a general consent to service of process, or subject itself to taxation in any jurisdiction if it is not otherwise so subject.
 
20

e.           Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus.  The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the reasonable expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during the Prospectus Delivery Period (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.
 
f.           Earnings Statement.  The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.
 
g.           Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”
 
h.           Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Ordinary Shares (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Ordinary Shares, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Ordinary Shares during the period beginning on the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to the Agent hereunder and ending on the third (3rd) Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly enter into in any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Ordinary Shares (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Ordinary Shares, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Ordinary Shares prior to the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restrictions will not apply in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) Ordinary Shares, options to purchase Ordinary Shares or Ordinary Shares issuable upon the exercise of options, pursuant to any stock option, or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not Ordinary Shares subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented; (ii) Ordinary Shares issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent, (iii) Ordinary Shares, or securities convertible into or exercisable for Ordinary Shares, offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, strategic partners or potential strategic partners or other investors conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Ordinary Shares hereby and (iv) Ordinary Shares in connection with any acquisition, strategic investment or other similar transaction (including any joint venture, strategic alliance or partnership).
 
21

i.           Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.
 
j.           Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent or its representatives in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.
 
k.           Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every date a filing under Rule 424(b) is made, a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.
 
l.            Representation Dates; Certificate. Each time during the term of this Agreement that the Company:
 
(i)          amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;
 
(ii)          files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended audited financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);
 
(iii)         files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or
 
(iv)         files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to items 2.02, 7.01 or 9.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to the reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) under the Exchange Act;
 
22

(Each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date.”)
 
the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material) with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(k). The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(k) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K. Notwithstanding the foregoing, (i) upon the delivery of the first Placement Notice hereunder and (ii) if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(k), then before the Agent sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(k), dated the date of the Placement Notice.
 
m.          Legal Opinion. On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice given hereunder the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent a written opinion and a negative assurance letter to the extent applicable, of (a) Greenberg Traurig, P.A., special counsel to the Company, (b) Herzog Fox & Neeman, Israeli legal counsel for the Company, and, (c) Ehrlich & Fenster LTD, patent counsel for the Company (collectively, “Company Counsel”) each in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent. Thereafter, within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(k) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent a negative assurance letter of Company Counsel in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent; provided that, in lieu of such negative assurance for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Agent may rely on the negative assurance letter previously delivered under this Section 7(l) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).
 
n.           Comfort Letter. On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice given hereunder and within five (5) Trading Days after each subsequent Representation Date, other than pursuant to Section 7(k)(iii), the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(m). The Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent accountants shall be in a form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, (i) confirming that they are an independent public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”), (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.
 
23

o.           Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of Ordinary Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase Ordinary Shares in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent.
 
p.           Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor the Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.
 
q.            No Offer to Sell. Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agent in its capacity as agent hereunder pursuant to Section 23, the Company (including its agents and representatives) will not make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.
 
r.            Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting its assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company will maintain disclosure controls and procedures that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act.
 
8.           Representations and Covenants of the Agent. The Agent represents and warrants that it is duly registered as a broker-dealer under FINRA, the Exchange Act and the applicable statutes and regulations of each state in which the Placement Shares will be offered and sold, except such states in which the Agent is exempt from registration or such registration is not otherwise required. The Agent shall continue, for the term of this Agreement, to be duly registered as a broker-dealer under FINRA, the Exchange Act and the applicable statutes and regulations of each state in which the Placement Shares will be offered and sold, except such states in which it is exempt from registration or such registration is not otherwise required, during the term of this Agreement.  The Agent shall comply with all applicable law and regulations in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including the issuance and sale through the Agent of the Placement Shares. Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agent in its capacity as agent hereunder pursuant to Section 23, the Agent (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as such) will not make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.
 
24

9.          Payment of Expenses. The Company will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation, filing, including any fees required by the Commission, and printing of the Registration Statement (including financial statements and exhibits) as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto and each Free Writing Prospectus, in such number as the Agent shall deem reasonably necessary, (ii) the printing and delivery to the Agent of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the certificates, if any, for the Placement Shares to the Agent, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agent, (iv) the fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the Company, (v) the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees and disbursements of counsel to the Agent incurred in connection with (a) entering into the transactions contemplated by this Agreement in an amount not to exceed $25,000 in the aggregate in connection with the execution of this Agreement, and (b) ongoing diligence arising from the transactions contemplated by this Agreement in an amount not to exceed $2,500 in the aggregate per calendar quarter; (vi) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the Ordinary Shares, (vii) the filing fees incident to any review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Placement Shares, and (viii) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange.
 
10.         Conditions to the Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein (other than those representations and warranties made as of a specified date or time), to the due performance in all material respects by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to it in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing reasonable satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:
 
a.           Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall remain effective and shall be available for the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.
 
b.          No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post‑effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or receipt by the Company of notification of the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or receipt by the Company of notification of the initiation of, or a threat to initiate, any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
 
25

c.          No Misstatement or Material Omission. The Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.
 
d.          Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that would cause a Material Adverse Effect.
 
e.           Company Counsel Legal Opinion. The Agent shall have received the opinion and negative assurance letter of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(l) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion and negative assurance letter are required pursuant to Section 7(l).
 
f.            Agent Counsel Legal Opinion. Agent shall have received from Duane Morris LLP, counsel for the Agent, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(l), with respect to such matters as the Agent may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.
 
g.           Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant Section 7(m) on or before the date on which such delivery of such letter is required pursuant to Section 7(m).
 
h.           Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(k) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(k).
 
i.           Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the first Representation Date, the Agent shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate Secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel.
 
j.            No Suspension. Trading in the Ordinary Shares shall not have been suspended on the Exchange and the Ordinary Shares shall not have been delisted from the Exchange.
 
k.           Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(k), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request and which are usually and customarily furnished by an issuer of securities in connection with a securities offering of the type contemplated hereby. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents will be in compliance with the provisions hereof.
 
26

l.           Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.
 
m.          Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance, or the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.
 
n.           No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 13(a).
 
11.          Indemnification and Contribution.
 
(a)         Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act as follows:
 
(i)          against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or arising out of any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;
 
(ii)          against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, to the extent of the aggregate amount paid in settlement of any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any governmental agency or body, commenced or threatened, or of any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission; provided that (subject to Section 11(d) below) any such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be delayed or withheld; and
 
(iii)         against any and all expense whatsoever, as incurred (including the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees and disbursements of counsel), reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any governmental agency or body, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission, to the extent that any such expense is not paid under (i) or (ii) above,
 
27

provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense to the extent arising out of any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made solely in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto).
 
(b)         Indemnification by the Agent. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and officers, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 11(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent and furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein.
 
(c)         Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 11 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 11, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 11 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provisions of this Section 11 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict of interest exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 11 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising out of such litigation, investigation, proceeding or claim and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.
 
28

(d)          Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 11 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than the Agent, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent (before deducting expenses) from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering.  Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 11(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 11(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 11(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 11(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 11(d), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 11(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of the Agent, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer who signed the Registration Statement and director of the Company will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 11(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 11(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 11(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 11(c) hereof.
 
29

12.         Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 11 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.
 
13.          Termination.
 
a.          The Agent may terminate this Agreement, by notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (1) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that would have a Material Adverse Effect that, in the sole judgment of the Agent, is material and adverse and makes it impractical or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (2) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the judgment of the Agent, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (3) if trading in the Ordinary Shares has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the Exchange, or if trading generally on the Exchange has been suspended or limited, or minimum prices for trading have been fixed on the Exchange, (4) if any suspension of trading of any securities of the Company on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing, (5) if a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the United States shall have occurred and be continuing, or (6) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either U.S. Federal or New York authorities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 13(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 14 (Notices).
 
30

b.          The Company shall have the right, by giving five (5) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
 
c.          The Agent shall have the right, by giving five (5) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
 
d.          Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 13, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through the Agent on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein except that the provisions of Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
 
e.          This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 13(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) shall remain in full force and effect. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to the Agent for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by the Agent under this Agreement.
 
31

f.           Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.
 
14.          Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:
 
B. Riley Securities, Inc.
299 Park Avenue, 7th Floor
New York, NY 10171
Attention:     General Counsel
Telephone:   (212) 457-9947
Email:            atmdesk@brileyfin.com
 
with a copy to:


Duane Morris LLP
1540 Broadway
New York, NY 10036
Attention:     James T. Seery
Telephone:   (973) 424-2088
Email:            jtseery@duanemorris.com
 
and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

Entera Bio Ltd.
Kiryat Hadassah
Minrav Building - Fifth Floor
Jerusalem, Israel
Attention:     Miranda J. Toledano, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Business Officer
Email:             miranda@enterabio.com

with a copy to:

Greenberg Traurig, P.A.
333 S.E. 2nd Avenue, Suite 4400
Miami, FL 33131
Attention:     Drew M. Altman, Esq.
Telephone:    (305) 579-0589
Email:             altmand@gtlaw.com

32

 
Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally, by email, or by verifiable facsimile transmission on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Exchange and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.
 
15.          Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 11 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither the Company nor the Agent may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party.
 
16.          Adjustments for Stock Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share‑related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share consolidation, bonus shares, stock split, stock dividend, corporate domestication or similar event effected with respect to the Placement Shares.
 
17.        Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.
 
18.         GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. THE COMPANY AND THE AGENT EACH HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.
 
33

19.        CONSENT TO JURISDICTION. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE NON-EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS SITTING IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, FOR THE ADJUDICATION OF ANY DISPUTE HEREUNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, AND AGREES NOT TO ASSERT IN ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING, ANY CLAIM THAT IT IS NOT PERSONALLY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY SUCH COURT, THAT SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM OR THAT THE VENUE OF SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS IMPROPER. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES PERSONAL SERVICE OF PROCESS AND CONSENTS TO PROCESS BEING SERVED IN ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BY MAILING A COPY THEREOF (CERTIFIED OR REGISTERED MAIL, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED) TO SUCH PARTY AT THE ADDRESS IN EFFECT FOR NOTICES TO IT UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND AGREES THAT SUCH SERVICE SHALL CONSTITUTE GOOD AND SUFFICIENT SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE THEREOF. NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE DEEMED TO LIMIT IN ANY WAY ANY RIGHT TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW.
 
20.         Use of Information. The Agent may not use any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to advise any party with respect to transactions not expressly approved by the Company.
 
21.          Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile transmission or email of a .pdf attachment.
 
22.          Effect of Headings.  The section, Schedule and Exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.
 
23.         Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Agent, and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405, required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping. For the purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that all free writing prospectuses, if any, listed in Exhibit 23 hereto are Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.
 
34

24.          Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:
 
a.          The Agent is acting solely as agent in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters, and the Agent has no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;
 
b.           it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;
 
c.           the Agent has not provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;
 
d.           it is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Agent has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and
 
e.           it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Placement Shares under this Agreement and agrees that the Agent shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company, other than in respect of the Agent’s obligations under this Agreement and to keep information provided by the Company to the Agent and its counsel confidential to the extent not otherwise publicly-available.
 
25.          Definitions.  As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:
 
Applicable Time” means (i) each Representation Date and (ii) the time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.
 
Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, relating to the Placement Shares that (1) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (2) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (3) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Shares or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g) under the Securities Act.
 
35

Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 424(b),” “Rule 430B,” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act.
 
All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.
 
All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; and all references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include, without limitation, any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.
 
[Remainder of the page intentionally left blank]

36

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.
 
 
Very truly yours,
 
     
 
ENTERA BIO LTD.
 
       
 
By:
/s/ Spiros Jamas
 
   
Name: Spiros Jamas
 
   
Title:  Chief Executive Officer
 
     
 
ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
 
       
 
B. RILEY SECURITIES, INC.
 
       
 
By:
/s/ Patrice McNicoll
 
   
Name:  Patrice McNicoll
 
   
Title:  Co-Head of Investment Banking
 

37




 


Exhibit 4.1

 

 

Entera Bio Ltd.

 

as the Company

 

and

 

[            ]

 

as Trustee

 



Senior Indenture

 

Dated as of [      ], [        ]



 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS



 

  Page
   
Article 1
Definitions and Incorporation by Reference
 
Section 1.01.  Definitions 1
Section 1.02.  Other Definitions 4
Section 1.03.  Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act 4
Section 1.04.  Rules of Construction 4
   
Article 2
The Securities
 
Section 2.01.  Form and Dating 5
Section 2.02.  Execution and Authentication 5
Section 2.03.  Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series 6
Section 2.04.  Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest 8
Section 2.05.  Registrar and Paying Agent; Agents Generally 8
Section 2.06.  Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust 9
Section 2.07.  Transfer and Exchange 9
Section 2.08.  Replacement Securities 11
Section 2.09.  Outstanding Securities 11
Section 2.10.  Temporary Securities 12
Section 2.11.  Cancellation 12
Section 2.12.  CUSIP Numbers 12
Section 2.13.  Defaulted Interest 12
Section 2.14.  Series May Include Tranches 13
   
Article 3
Redemption
 
Section 3.01.  Applicability of Article 13
Section 3.02.  Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions 13
Section 3.03.  Payment of Securities Called for Redemption 14
Section 3.04.  Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption 14
Section 3.05.  Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds 15
   
Article 4
Covenants
 
Section 4.01.  Payment of Securities 16
Section 4.02.  Maintenance of Office or Agency 16
Section 4.03.  Securityholders’ Lists 17
Section 4.04.  Certificate to Trustee 17
Section 4.05.  Reports by the Company 17
Section 4.06.  Additional Amounts 17
   
Article 5
Successor Corporation
 
Section 5.01.  When Company May Merge, Etc. 18
Section 5.02.  Successor Substituted 18

 

i

 

 

Article 6
Default and Remedies
 
Section 6.01.  Events of Default 19
Section 6.02.  Acceleration 19
Section 6.03.  Other Remedies 20
Section 6.04.  Waiver of Past Defaults 20
Section 6.05.  Control by Majority 21
Section 6.06.  Limitation on Suits 21
Section 6.07.  Rights of Holders to Receive Payment 21
Section 6.08.  Collection Suit by Trustee 21
Section 6.09.  Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 22
Section 6.10.  Application of Proceeds 22
Section 6.11.  Restoration of Rights and Remedies 22
Section 6.12.  Undertaking for Costs 23
Section 6.13.  Rights and Remedies Cumulative 23
Section 6.14.  Delay or Omission not Waiver 23
   
Article 7
Trustee
 
Section 7.01.  General 23
Section 7.02.  Certain Rights of Trustee 23
Section 7.03.  Individual Rights of Trustee 24
Section 7.04.  Trustee’s Disclaimer 25
Section 7.05.  Notice of Default 25
Section 7.06.  Reports by Trustee to Holders 25
Section 7.07.  Compensation and Indemnity 25
Section 7.08.  Replacement of Trustee 26
Section 7.09.  Acceptance of Appointment by Successor 26
Section 7.10.  Successor Trustee By Merger, Etc. 27
Section 7.11.  Eligibility 27
Section 7.12.  Money Held in Trust 27
   
Article 8
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Unclaimed Moneys
 
Section 8.01.  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 28
Section 8.02.  Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities 28
Section 8.03.  Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent 28
Section 8.04.  Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years 28
Section 8.05.  Defeasance and Discharge of Indenture 29
Section 8.06.  Defeasance of Certain Obligations 30
Section 8.07.  Reinstatement 30
Section 8.08.  Indemnity 31
Section 8.09.  Excess Funds 31
Section 8.10.  Qualifying Trustee 31
   
Article 9
Amendments, Supplements and Waivers
 
Section 9.01.  Without Consent of Holders 31
Section 9.02.  With Consent of Holders 31
Section 9.03.  Revocation and Effect of Consent 32
Section 9.04.  Notation on or Exchange of Securities 33
Section 9.05.  Trustee to Sign Amendments, Etc. 33

 

ii

 

 

Section 9.06.  Conformity with Trust Indenture Act 33
   
Article 10
Miscellaneous
 
Section 10.01.  Trust Indenture Act of 1939 33
Section 10.02.  Notices 33
Section 10.03.  Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent 34
Section 10.04.  Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion 34
Section 10.05.  Evidence of Ownership 34
Section 10.06.  Rules by Trustee, Paying Agent or Registrar 35
Section 10.07.  Payment Date Other Than a Business Day 35
Section 10.08.  Governing Law 35
Section 10.09.  No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements 35
Section 10.10.  Successors 35
Section 10.11.  Duplicate Originals 35
Section 10.12.  Separability 35
Section 10.13.  Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. 35
Section 10.14.  Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers and Directors of Company Exempt from Individual Liability 35
Section 10.15.  Judgment Currency 36
Section 10.16.  Waiver of Jury Trial 36
Section 10.17.  Force Majeure 36

 

iii

 

 

SENIOR INDENTURE, dated as of [                  ,          ], between Entera Bio Ltd., an Israeli company, as the Company, and [        ], as Trustee.

 

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

 

WHEREAS, the Company has duly authorized the issue from time to time of its senior debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration thereof, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

 

NOW, THEREFORE:

 

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Company and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities or of any and all series thereof as follows:

 

Article 1
Definitions and Incorporation by Reference

 

Section 1.01.             Definitions.

 

Affiliate” of any Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling”, “controlled by” and “under common control with”) when used with respect to any Person means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise.

 

Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, transfer agent or Authenticating Agent.

 

Board Resolution” means one or more resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or any authorized committee thereof, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary to have been duly adopted and to be in full force and effect on the date of certification, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means any day, other than a Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close (i) with respect to any Security the interest on which is based on the offered quotations in the interbank Eurodollar market for dollar deposits in London or in The City of New York or (ii) with respect to Securities denominated in a specified currency other than United States dollars, in the principal financial center of the country of the specified currency.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to Article 5 of this Indenture and thereafter means the successor.

 

1

 

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be administered, which office is, at the date of this Indenture, located at [    ].

 

Default” means any event that is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Company pursuant to Section 2.03 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Registered Global Securities of that series.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Holder” or “Securityholder” means the registered holder of any Security.

 

IFRS” means International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, as in effect as of the date hereof.

 

Indenture” means this Indenture as originally executed and delivered or as it may be amended or supplemented from time to time by one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture and shall include the forms and terms of the Securities of each series established as contemplated pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03.

 

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the board of directors, the president or chief executive officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the chief financial officer, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

 

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed in the name of the Company (i) by the chairman of the board of directors, president or chief executive officer, an executive vice president, a senior vice president or a vice president, and (ii) by the chief financial officer, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, or the secretary or any assistant secretary, and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act, if applicable, and include (except as otherwise expressly provided in this Indenture) the statements provided in Section 10.04, if applicable.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion signed by legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel to the Company, satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act, if applicable, and include the statements provided in Section 10.04, if and to the extent required thereby.

 

original issue date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of authentication of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

 

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the Principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

 

Periodic Offering” means an offering of Securities of a series from time to time, the specific terms of which Securities, including, without limitation, the rate or rates of interest, if any, thereon, the stated maturity or maturities thereof and the redemption provisions, if any, with respect thereto, are to be determined by the Company or its agents upon the issuance of such Securities.

 

2

 

 

Person” means an individual, a corporation, a partnership, a limited liability company, an association, a trust or any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

 

Principal” of a Security means the principal amount of, and, unless the context indicates otherwise, includes any premium payable on, the Security.

 

Registered Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.02, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.02.

 

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee, shall mean an officer of the Trustee in the Corporate Trust Office, having direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture, and also, with respect to a particular matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

Securities” means any of the securities, as defined in the first paragraph of the recitals hereof, that are authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association or other business entity of which a majority of the capital stock or other ownership interests having ordinary voting power to elect a majority of the board of directors or other persons performing similar functions are at the time directly or indirectly owned by such Person.

 

Trustee” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces it in accordance with the provisions of Article 7 and thereafter shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

 

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb), as it may be amended from time to time.

 

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt.

 

Yield to Maturity” means, as the context may require, the yield to maturity (i) on a series of Securities or (ii) if the Securities of a series are issuable from time to time, on a Security of such series, calculated at the time of issuance of such series in the case of clause (i) or at the time of issuance of such Security of such series in the case of clause (ii), or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series or on such Security, and calculated in accordance with the constant interest method or such other accepted financial practice as is specified in the terms of such Security.

 

3

 

 

Section 1.02.             Other Definitions. Each of the following terms is defined in the section set forth opposite such term:

 

Term Section
   
Authenticating Agent 2.02
cash transaction 7.03
Event of Default 6.01
Judgment Currency 10.15(a)
mandatory sinking fund payment 3.05
optional sinking fund payment 3.05
Paying Agent 2.05
record date 2.04
Registrar 2.05
Required Currency 10.15(a)
Security Register 2.05
self-liquidating paper 7.03
sinking fund payment date 3.05
Surviving Entity 5.01(a)
tranche 2.14

 

Section 1.03.             Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the Trust Indenture Act, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the Trust Indenture Act have the following meanings:

 

indenture securities” means the Securities;

 

indenture security holder” means a Holder or a Securityholder;

 

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture;

 

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee; and

 

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company or any other obligor on the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the Trust Indenture Act, defined by reference in the Trust Indenture Act to another statute or defined by a rule of the Commission and not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them therein.

 

Section 1.04.             Rules of Construction. Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a)            an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with IFRS;

 

(b)            words in the singular include the plural, and words in the plural include the singular;

 

(c)            “herein,” “hereof” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision;

 

(d)            all references to Sections or Articles refer to Sections or Articles of this Indenture unless otherwise indicated; and

 

(e)            use of masculine, feminine or neuter pronouns should not be deemed a limitation, and the use of any such pronouns should be construed to include, where appropriate, the other pronouns.

 

4

 

 

Article 2
The Securities

 

Section 2.01.             Form and Dating. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form or forms (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law, or with any rules of any securities exchange or usage, all as may be determined by the Officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of the Securities.

 

Section 2.02.             Execution and Authentication. Two Officers shall execute the Securities for the Company by facsimile or manual signature in the name and on behalf of the Company. If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

The Trustee, at the expense of the Company, may appoint an authenticating agent (the “Authenticating Agent”) to authenticate Securities. The Authenticating Agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such Authenticating Agent.

 

A Security shall not be valid until the Trustee or Authenticating Agent signs, manually or by facsimile, the certificate of authentication on the Security. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the written order of the Company. In authenticating any Securities of a series, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive prior to the authentication of any Securities of such series, and (subject to Article 7) shall be fully protected in relying upon, unless and until such documents have been superseded or revoked:

 

(a)            any Board Resolution and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities of that series were established;

 

(b)            an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities, stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities of such series have been, or, in the case of a Periodic Offering, will be when established in accordance with such procedures as shall be referred to therein, established in compliance with this Indenture; and

 

(c)            an Opinion of Counsel substantially to the effect that the form or forms and terms of the Securities of such series have been, or, in the case of a Periodic Offering, will be when established in accordance with such procedures as shall be referred to therein, established in compliance with this Indenture and that the supplemental indenture, to the extent applicable, and Securities have been duly authorized and, if executed and authenticated in accordance with the provisions of the Indenture and delivered to and duly paid for by the purchasers thereof on the date of such opinion, would be entitled to the benefits of the Indenture and would be valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms, subject to bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, receivership, moratorium and other similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, general principles of equity, and covering such other matters as shall be specified therein and as shall be reasonably requested by the Trustee.

 

5

 

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner which is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 2.01 and 2.02, if, in connection with a Periodic Offering, all Securities of a series are not to be originally issued at one time, it shall not be necessary to deliver the Board Resolution otherwise required pursuant to Section 2.01 or the written order, Officers’ Certificate and Opinion of Counsel otherwise required pursuant to Section 2.02 at or prior to the authentication of each Security of such series if such documents are delivered at or prior to the authentication upon original issuance of the first Security of such series to be issued.

 

With respect to Securities of a series offered in a Periodic Offering, the Trustee may rely, as to the authorization by the Company of any of such Securities, the forms and terms thereof and the legality, validity, binding effect and enforceability thereof, upon the Opinion of Counsel and the other documents delivered pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02, as applicable, in connection with the first authentication of Securities of such series.

 

If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of a series or a portion thereof are to be issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver one or more Registered Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate Principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued in such form and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or its custodian or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall (unless provided otherwise in the form of such Security) bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, this Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to the nominee of the Depositary or by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

Section 2.03.             Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate Principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

 

The Securities may be issued in one or more series and each such series shall rank equally and pari passu with all other unsecured and unsubordinated debt of the Company. There shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, subject to the last sentence of this Section 2.03,

 

(a)            the designation of the Securities of the series, which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from the Securities of all other series;

 

(b)            any limit upon the aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture and any limitation on the ability of the Company to increase such aggregate Principal amount after the initial issuance of the Securities of that series (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, or upon redemption of, other Securities of the series pursuant hereto);

 

(c)            the date or dates on which the Principal of the Securities of the series is payable (which date or dates may be fixed or extendible);

 

(d)            the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, on which such interest shall be payable and on which a record shall be taken for the determination of Holders to whom interest is payable and/or the method by which such rate or rates or date or dates shall be determined;

 

6

 

 

(e)            if other than as provided in Section 4.02, the place or places where the Principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable, any Securities of the series may be surrendered for exchange, and notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of the series and this Indenture may be served;

 

(f)            the right, if any, of the Company to redeem Securities of the series, in whole or in part, at its option and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be so redeemed, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;

 

(g)            the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any of the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(h)            if other than denominations of $2,000 and any higher integral multiple of $1,000, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(i)            if other than the Principal amount thereof, the portion of the Principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

(j)            if other than the coin or currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the coin or currency in which payment of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of the series shall be payable or if the amount of payments of principal of and/or interest on the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index based on a coin or currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

(k)            if other than the currency of the United States of America, the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which payment of the Principal of and interest on the Securities of the series shall be payable, and the manner in which any such currencies shall be valued against other currencies in which any other Securities shall be payable;

 

(l)            whether the Securities of the series or any portion thereof will be issuable as Registered Global Securities;

 

(m)           whether the Securities of the series may be exchangeable for and/or convertible into the common stock of the Company or any other security;

 

(n)            whether and under what circumstances the Company will pay additional amounts on the Securities of the series held by a person who is not a U.S. person in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge withheld or deducted and, if so, whether the Company will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;

 

(o)            if the Securities of the series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

(p)            any trustees, depositaries, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or the registrar or any other agents with respect to the Securities of the series;

 

(q)            provisions, if any, for the defeasance of the Securities of the series (including provisions permitting defeasance of less than all Securities of the series), which provisions may be in addition to, in substitution for, or in modification of (or any combination of the foregoing) the provisions of Article 8;

 

7

 

 

(r)             if the Securities of the series are issuable in whole or in part as one or more Registered Global Securities, the identity of the Depositary or common Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities;

 

(s)           any other or alternative Events of Default or covenants with respect to the Securities of the series; and

 

(t)            any other terms of the Securities of the series.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical, except as to date and denomination, except in the case of any Periodic Offering and except as may otherwise be provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution referred to above or as set forth in any such indenture supplemental hereto. All Securities of any one series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to such Board Resolution or in any such indenture supplemental hereto and any forms and terms of Securities to be issued from time to time may be completed and established from time to time prior to the issuance thereof by procedures described in such Board Resolution or supplemental indenture.

 

Unless otherwise expressly provided with respect to a series of Securities, the aggregate principal amount of a series of Securities may be increased and additional Securities of such series may be issued up to the maximum aggregate principal amount authorized with respect to such series as increased.

 

Section 2.04.             Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities of each series shall be issuable in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established with respect to Securities of any series, in denominations of $2,000 and any higher integral multiple of $1,000. The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the Officers of the Company executing the same may determine, as evidenced by their execution thereof.

 

Unless otherwise specified with respect to a series of Securities, each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

 

The person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any interest payment date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such interest payment date notwithstanding any transfer or exchange of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such interest payment date, except if and to the extent the Company shall default in the payment of the interest due on such interest payment date for such series, in which case the provisions of Section 2.13 shall apply. The term “record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so established, the fifteenth day next preceding such interest payment date, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.

 

Section 2.05.             Registrar and Paying Agent; Agents Generally. The Company shall maintain an office or agency where Securities may be presented for registration, registration of transfer or for exchange (the “Registrar”) and an office or agency where Securities may be presented for payment (the “Paying Agent”), which shall be in the United States of America. The Company shall cause the Registrar to keep a register of the Securities and of their registration, transfer and exchange (the “Security Register”). The Company may have one or more additional Paying Agents or transfer agents with respect to any series.

 

8

 

 

The Company shall enter into an appropriate agency agreement with any Agent not a party to this Indenture. The agreement shall implement the provisions of this Indenture and the Trust Indenture Act that relate to such Agent. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address of any Agent and any change in the name or address of an Agent. If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company may remove any Agent upon written notice to such Agent and the Trustee; provided that no such removal shall become effective until (i) the acceptance of an appointment by a successor Agent to such Agent as evidenced by an appropriate agency agreement entered into by the Company and such successor Agent and delivered to the Trustee or (ii) notification to the Trustee that the Trustee shall serve as such Agent until the appointment of a successor Agent in accordance with clause (i) of this proviso. The Company or any Affiliate of the Company may act as Paying Agent or Registrar; provided that neither the Company nor an Affiliate of the Company shall act as Paying Agent in connection with the defeasance of the Securities or the discharge of this Indenture under Article 8.

 

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as Registrar, Paying Agent and Authenticating Agent. If, at any time, the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Registrar shall make available to the Trustee ten days prior to each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may reasonably request the names and addresses of the Holders as they appear in the Security Register.

 

Section 2.06.             Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. Not later than 10:00 a.m. New York City time on each due date of any Principal or interest on any Securities, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money in immediately available funds sufficient to pay such Principal or interest. The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that such Paying Agent shall hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities or the Trustee all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of Principal of and interest on such Securities and shall promptly notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee and account for any funds disbursed, and the Trustee may at any time during the continuance of any payment default, upon written request to a Paying Agent, require such Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee and to account for any funds disbursed. Upon doing so, the Paying Agent shall have no further liability for the money so paid over to the Trustee. If the Company or any affiliate of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it will, on or before each due date of any Principal of or interest on any Securities, segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of the Holders thereof a sum of money sufficient to pay such Principal or interest so becoming due until such sum of money shall be paid to such Holders or otherwise disposed of as provided in this Indenture, and will promptly notify the Trustee in writing of its action or failure to act as required by this Section.

 

Section 2.07.             Transfer and Exchange. At the option of the Holder thereof, Securities of any series (other than a Registered Global Security, except as set forth below) may be exchanged for a Security or Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate Principal amount, upon surrender of such Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Company that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 2.05 and upon payment, if the Company shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.

 

Upon surrender for registration of transfer of any Security of a series at the agency of the Company that shall be maintained for that purpose in accordance with Section 2.05 and upon payment, if the Company shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the name of the designated transferee or transferees, one or more new Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of like tenor and aggregate Principal amount.

 

All Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee duly executed by, the holder or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

The Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

 

9

 

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.07, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Registered Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

If at any time the Depositary for any Registered Global Securities of any series notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Registered Global Securities or if at any time the Depositary for such Registered Global Securities shall no longer be eligible under applicable law, the Company shall appoint a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law with respect to such Registered Global Securities. If a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law for such Registered Global Securities is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Company will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Company’s order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and deliver certificated Securities of such series and tenor, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate Principal amount equal to the Principal amount of such Registered Global Securities, in exchange for such Registered Global Securities.

 

The Company may at any time and in its sole discretion and subject to the procedures of the Depositary determine that any Registered Global Securities of any series shall no longer be maintained in global form. In such event the Company will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Company’s order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and deliver, certificated Securities of such series and tenor in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate Principal amount equal to the Principal amount of such Registered Global Securities, in exchange for such Registered Global Securities.

 

Any time the Securities of any series are not in the form of Registered Global Securities pursuant to the preceding two paragraphs, the Company agrees to supply the Trustee with a reasonable supply of certificated Securities without the legend required by Section 2.02 and the Trustee agrees to hold such Securities in safekeeping until authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

 

If established by the Company pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to any Registered Global Security, the Depositary for such Registered Global Security may surrender such Registered Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Securities of the same series and tenor in definitive registered form on such terms as are acceptable to the Company and such Depositary. Thereupon, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge,

 

(a)            to the Person specified by such Depositary new certificated Securities of the same series and tenor, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate Principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Registered Global Security; and

 

(b)            to such Depositary a new Registered Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the Principal amount of the surrendered Registered Global Security and the aggregate Principal amount of certificated Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (a) above.

 

Certificated Securities issued in exchange for a Registered Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.07 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Registered Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee or an agent of the Company or the Trustee. The Trustee or such agent shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

10

 

 

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

 

The Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, authenticate, register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any series for a period of 15 days before a selection of such Securities to be redeemed or (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Security selected for redemption in whole or in part.

 

Section 2.08.             Replacement Securities. If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in exchange for such mutilated Security, a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and Principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of any of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and Principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of any of them harmless, and in the case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee and any agent of them of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and the ownership thereof.

 

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

Every new Security of any series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security or in exchange for any mutilated Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and any such new Security shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that series duly issued hereunder.

 

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 2.09.             Outstanding Securities. Securities outstanding at any time are all Securities that have been authenticated by the Trustee except for those cancelled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those described in this Section as not outstanding and those that have been defeased pursuant to Section 8.05.

 

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding unless and until the Trustee and the Company receive proof satisfactory to them that the replaced Security is held by a holder in due course.

 

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company or an affiliate of the Company) holds on the maturity date or any redemption date or date for repurchase of the Securities money sufficient to pay Securities payable or to be redeemed or repurchased on that date, then on and after that date such Securities cease to be outstanding and interest on them shall cease to accrue.

 

11

 

 

A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or one of its affiliates holds such Security, provided, however, that, in determining whether the Holders of the requisite Principal amount of the outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, Securities owned by the Company or any affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded and deemed not to be outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities as to which a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has received written notice to be so owned shall be so disregarded. Any Securities so owned which are pledged by the Company, or by any affiliate of the Company, as security for loans or other obligations, otherwise than to another such affiliate of the Company, shall be deemed to be outstanding, if the pledgee is entitled pursuant to the terms of its pledge agreement and is free to exercise in its or his discretion the right to vote such securities, uncontrolled by the Company or by any such affiliate.

 

Section 2.10.             Temporary Securities. Until definitive Securities of any series are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities of such series. Temporary Securities of any series shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities of such series but may have insertions, substitutions, omissions and other variations determined to be appropriate by the Officers executing the temporary Securities, as evidenced by their execution of such temporary Securities. If temporary Securities of any series are issued, the Company will cause definitive Securities of such series to be prepared without unreasonable delay. After the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the temporary Securities of such series shall be exchangeable for definitive Securities of such series and tenor upon surrender of such temporary Securities at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose pursuant to Section 4.02, without charge to the Holder. Upon surrender for cancellation of any one or more temporary Securities of any series the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a like Principal amount of definitive Securities of such series and tenor and authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series.

 

Section 2.11.             Cancellation. The Company at any time may deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold. The Registrar, any transfer agent and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel and dispose of in accordance with its customary procedures all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment or cancellation and shall deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities it has paid in full or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.12.             CUSIP Numbers. The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP,” “ISIN” and/or “CINS” numbers (if then generally in use), and the Trustee shall use CUSIP numbers, ISIN numbers or CINS numbers, as the case may be, in notices of redemption or exchange as a convenience to Holders and no representation shall be made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of redemption or exchange.

 

Section 2.13.             Defaulted Interest. If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Securities, it shall pay, or shall deposit with the Paying Agent money in immediately available funds sufficient to pay, the defaulted interest plus (to the extent lawful) any interest payable on the defaulted interest (as may be specified in the terms thereof, established pursuant to Section 2.03) to the Persons who are Holders on a subsequent special record date, which shall mean the 15th day next preceding the date fixed by the Company for the payment of defaulted interest, whether or not such day is a Business Day. At least 15 days before such special record date, the Company shall mail to each Holder of such Securities and to the Trustee a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of defaulted interest to be paid.

 

12

 

 

Section 2.14.             Series May Include Tranches. A series of Securities may include one or more tranches (each a “tranche”) of Securities, including Securities issued in a Periodic Offering. The Securities of different tranches may have one or more different terms, including authentication dates and public offering prices, but all the Securities within each such tranche shall have identical terms, including authentication date and public offering price. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, with respect to Sections 2.02 (other than the fourth, sixth and seventh paragraphs thereof) through 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 2.10, 3.01 through 3.05, 4.02, 6.01 through 6.14, 8.01 through 8.07, 9.02 and 10.07, if any series of Securities includes more than one tranche, all provisions of such sections applicable to any series of Securities shall be deemed equally applicable to each tranche of any series of Securities in the same manner as though originally designated a series unless otherwise provided with respect to such series or tranche pursuant to Section 2.03. In particular, and without limiting the scope of the next preceding sentence, any of the provisions of such sections which provide for or permit action to be taken with respect to a series of Securities shall also be deemed to provide for and permit such action to be taken instead only with respect to Securities of one or more tranches within that series (and such provisions shall be deemed satisfied thereby), even if no comparable action is taken with respect to Securities in the remaining tranches of that series.

 

Article 3
Redemption

 

Section 3.01.             Applicability of Article. The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to the Securities of any series that are redeemable before their maturity or to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series.

 

Section 3.02.             Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions. Notice of redemption to the Holders of Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part at the option of the Company shall be given by mailing notice of such redemption by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption to such Holders of Securities of such series at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register. Any notice which is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the Holder receives the notice. Failure to give notice by mail, or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security of a series designated for redemption as a whole or in part, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Security of such series.

 

The notice of redemption to each such Holder shall specify the Principal amount of each Security of such series held by such Holder to be redeemed, the CUSIP numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, the date fixed for redemption, the redemption price, or if not then ascertainable, the manner of calculation thereof, the place or places of payment, that payment will be made upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that such redemption is pursuant to the mandatory or optional sinking fund, or both, if such be the case, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in such notice and that on and after said date interest thereon or on the portions thereof to be redeemed will cease to accrue. In case any Security of a series is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption shall state the portion of the Principal amount thereof to be redeemed and shall state that on and after the date fixed for redemption, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series and tenor in Principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

The notice of redemption of Securities of any series to be redeemed at the option of the Company shall be given by the Company or, at the Company’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Company.

 

13

 

 

On or before 10:00 a.m. New York City time on the redemption date specified in the notice of redemption given as provided in this Section, the Company will deposit with the Trustee or with one or more Paying Agents (or, if the Company is acting as its own Paying Agent, set aside, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 2.06) an amount of money sufficient to redeem on the redemption date all the Securities of such series so called for redemption at the appropriate redemption price, together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If all of the outstanding Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company will deliver to the Trustee at least 10 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given to Holders pursuant to the first paragraph of this Section 3.02 (or such shorter period as shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officers’ Certificate stating that all such Securities are to be redeemed. If less than all the outstanding Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company will deliver to the Trustee at least 15 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given to Holders pursuant to the first paragraph of this Section 3.02 (or such shorter period as shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officers’ Certificate stating the aggregate Principal amount of such Securities to be redeemed. In the case of any redemption of Securities (a) prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, or (b) pursuant to an election of the Company which is subject to a condition specified in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee, prior to the giving of any notice of redemption to Holders pursuant to this Section, an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with such restriction or condition.

 

If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select, pro rata, by lot or in such manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair, Securities of such series to be redeemed in whole or in part. Securities may be redeemed in part in Principal amounts equal to authorized denominations for Securities of such series. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities of such series selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities of such series selected for partial redemption, the Principal amount thereof to be redeemed. For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the Principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed.

 

Section 3.03.             Payment of Securities Called for Redemption. If notice of redemption has been given as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption, and on and after such date (unless the Company shall default in the payment of such Securities at the redemption price, together with interest accrued to such date) interest on the Securities or portions of Securities so called for redemption shall cease to accrue, and, except as provided in Sections 7.12 and 8.02, such Securities shall cease from and after the date fixed for redemption to be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture, and the Holders thereof shall have no right in respect of such Securities except the right to receive the redemption price thereof and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption. On presentation and surrender of such Securities at a place of payment specified in said notice, said Securities or the specified portions thereof shall be paid and redeemed by the Company at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption; provided that payment of interest becoming due on or prior to the date fixed for redemption shall be payable to the Holders registered as such on the relevant record date subject to the terms and provisions of Sections 2.04 and 2.13 hereof.

 

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal shall, until paid or duly provided for, bear interest from the date fixed for redemption at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security) borne by such Security.

 

Upon presentation of any Security of any series redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to or on the order of the Holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security or Securities of such series and tenor, of authorized denominations, in Principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

Section 3.04.             Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption. Unless otherwise provided with respect to any series of Securities, Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in a written statement signed by an authorized Officer of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at least 40 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by, either (a) the Company or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company.

 

14

 

 

Section 3.05.             Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds. The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” The date on which a sinking fund payment is to be made is herein referred to as the “sinking fund payment date.”

 

In lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to any series of Securities in cash, the Company may at its option (a) deliver to the Trustee Securities of such series theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except through a mandatory sinking fund payment) by the Company or receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except as aforesaid) by the Company and delivered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.11, (b) receive credit for optional sinking fund payments (not previously so credited) made pursuant to this Section, or (c) receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) redeemed by the Company at the option of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through any optional sinking fund payment. Securities so delivered or credited shall be received or credited by the Trustee at the sinking fund redemption price specified in such Securities.

 

On or before the sixtieth day next preceding each sinking fund payment date for any series, or such shorter period as shall be acceptable to the Trustee, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate (a) specifying the portion of the mandatory sinking fund payment to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion to be satisfied by credit of specified Securities of such series and the basis for such credit, (b) stating that none of the specified Securities of such series has theretofore been so credited, (c) stating that no defaults in the payment of interest or Events of Default with respect to such series have occurred (which have not been waived or cured) and are continuing and (d) stating whether or not the Company intends to exercise its right to make an optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series and, if so, specifying the amount of such optional sinking fund payment which the Company intends to pay on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Any Securities of such series to be credited and required to be delivered to the Trustee in order for the Company to be entitled to credit therefor as aforesaid which have not theretofore been delivered to the Trustee shall be delivered for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.11 to the Trustee with such Officers’ Certificate (or reasonably promptly thereafter if acceptable to the Trustee). Such Officers’ Certificate shall be irrevocable and upon its receipt by the Trustee the Company shall become unconditionally obligated to make all the cash payments or delivery of Securities therein referred to, if any, on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Failure of the Company, on or before any such sixtieth day, to deliver such Officer’s Certificate and Securities specified in this paragraph, if any, shall not constitute a default but shall constitute, on and as of such date, the irrevocable election of the Company (i) that the mandatory sinking fund payment for such series due on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date shall be paid entirely in cash without the option to deliver or credit Securities of such series in respect thereof and (ii) that the Company will make no optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series as provided in this Section.

 

If the sinking fund payment or payments (mandatory or optional or both) to be made in cash on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date plus any unused balance of any preceding sinking fund payments made in cash shall exceed $50,000 (or a lesser sum if the Company shall so request with respect to the Securities of any series), such cash shall be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date to the redemption of Securities of such series at the sinking fund redemption price thereof together with accrued interest thereon to the date fixed for redemption. If such amount shall be $50,000 (or such lesser sum) or less and the Company makes no such request then it shall be carried over until a sum in excess of $50,000 (or such lesser sum) is available. The Trustee shall select, in the manner provided in Section 3.02, for redemption on such sinking fund payment date a sufficient Principal amount of Securities of such series to absorb said cash, as nearly as may be, and shall (if requested in writing by the Company) inform the Company of the serial numbers of the Securities of such series (or portions thereof) so selected. Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for redemption under this Section if they are identified by registration and certificate number in an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee at least 60 days prior to the sinking fund payment date as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either (a) the Company or (b) an entity specifically identified in such Officers’ Certificate as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company. The Trustee, in the name and at the expense of the Company (or the Company, if it shall so request the Trustee in writing) shall cause notice of redemption of the Securities of such series to be given in substantially the manner provided in Section 3.02 (and with the effect provided in Section 3.03) for the redemption of Securities of such series in part at the option of the Company. The amount of any sinking fund payments not so applied or allocated to the redemption of Securities of such series shall be added to the next cash sinking fund payment for such series and, together with such payment, shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this Section. Any and all sinking fund moneys held on the stated maturity date of the Securities of any particular series (or earlier, if such maturity is accelerated), which are not held for the payment or redemption of particular Securities of such series shall be applied, together with other moneys, if necessary, sufficient for the purpose, to the payment of the Principal of, and interest on, the Securities of such series at maturity.

 

15

 

 

On or before 10:00 a.m. New York City time on each sinking fund payment date, the Company shall pay to the Trustee in cash or shall otherwise provide for the payment of all interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption on Securities to be redeemed on the next following sinking fund payment date.

 

The Trustee shall not redeem or cause to be redeemed any Securities of a series with sinking fund moneys or mail any notice of redemption of Securities of such series by operation of the sinking fund during the continuance of a Default in payment of interest on such Securities or of any Event of Default except that, where the mailing of notice of redemption of any Securities shall theretofore have been made, the Trustee shall redeem or cause to be redeemed such Securities, provided that it shall have received from the Company a sum sufficient for such redemption. Except as aforesaid, any moneys in the sinking fund for such series at the time when any such Default or Event of Default shall occur, and any moneys thereafter paid into the sinking fund, shall, during the continuance of such Default or Event of Default, be deemed to have been collected under Article 6 and held for the payment of all such Securities. In case such Event of Default shall have been waived as provided in Section 6.04 or the Default cured on or before the sixtieth day preceding the sinking fund payment date in any year, such moneys shall thereafter be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date in accordance with this Section to the redemption of such Securities.

 

Article 4
Covenants

 

Section 4.01.             Payment of Securities. The Company shall pay the Principal of and interest on the Securities on the dates and in the manner provided in the Securities and this Indenture. The interest on Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to the Holders thereof (subject to Section 2.04) and at the option of the Company may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security Register of the Company.

 

Notwithstanding any provisions of this Indenture and the Securities of any series to the contrary, if the Company and a Holder of any Security so agree, payments of interest on, and any portion of the Principal of, such Holder’s Security (other than interest payable at maturity or on any redemption or repayment date or the final payment of Principal on such Security) shall be made by the Paying Agent, upon receipt from the Company of immediately available funds by 11:00 A.M., New York City time (or such other time as may be agreed to between the Company and the Paying Agent), directly to the Holder of such Security (by Federal funds wire transfer or otherwise) if the Holder has delivered written instructions to the Trustee 15 days prior to such payment date requesting that such payment will be so made and designating the bank account to which such payments shall be so made and in the case of payments of Principal, surrenders the same to the Trustee in exchange for a Security or Securities aggregating the same Principal amount as the unredeemed Principal amount of the Securities surrendered. The Trustee shall be entitled to rely on the last instruction delivered by the Holder pursuant to this Section 4.01 unless a new instruction is delivered 15 days prior to a payment date. The Company will indemnify and hold each of the Trustee and any Paying Agent harmless against any loss, liability or expense (including attorneys’ fees) resulting from any act or omission to act on the part of the Company or any such Holder in connection with any such agreement or from making any payment in accordance with any such agreement.

 

16

 

 

The Company shall pay interest on overdue Principal, and interest on overdue installments of interest, to the extent lawful, at the rate per annum specified in the Securities.

 

Section 4.02.             Maintenance of Office or Agency. The Company will maintain in the United States of America, an office or agency where Securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange or for presentation for payment and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served. The Company hereby initially designates [        ], as such office or agency of the Company. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the address of the Trustee set forth in Section 10.02.

 

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities of any series may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in the United States of America for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

 

Section 4.03.             Securityholders’ Lists. The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the holders of the Securities pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act (a) semi-annually not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of semi-annual interest on the Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date, and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within thirty days after receipt by the Company of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished.

 

Section 4.04.             Certificate to Trustee. The Company will furnish to the Trustee annually, on or before a date not more than four months after the end of its fiscal year (which, on the date hereof, is a calendar year), a brief certificate (which need not contain the statements required by Section 10.04) from its principal executive, financial or accounting officer as to his or her knowledge of the compliance of the Company with all conditions and covenants under this Indenture (such compliance to be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under this Indenture) which certificate shall comply with the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 4.05.             Reports by the Company. The Company covenants to file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports which the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

 

17

 

 

Article 5
Successor Corporation

 

Section 5.01.             When Company May Merge, Etc. Unless otherwise provided pursuant to Section 2.03 in connection with the establishment of a series, the Company shall not consolidate or combine with, merge with or into, directly or indirectly, or sell, assign, convey, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its property and assets to any Person or Persons in a single transaction or through a series of transactions unless:

 

(a)            the Company shall be the continuing Person or, if the Company is not the continuing Person, the resulting, surviving or transferee Person (the “Surviving Entity”) is a company organized and existing under the laws of any member state of the European Union, Israel or the United States of America or any State or territory thereof;

 

(b)            the Surviving Entity shall expressly assume all of the Company’s obligations under the Securities and this Indenture, and shall, if required by law to effectuate the assumption, execute supplemental indentures which shall be delivered to the Trustee and shall be in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee;

 

(c)            immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions on a pro forma basis, no Default has occurred and is continuing; and

 

(d)            the Company or the Surviving Entity shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and Opinion of Counsel stating that (x) the transaction or series of transactions and such supplemental indenture, if any, complies with this Section 5.01, (y) such supplemental indenture (if any) constitutes the legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company and such Surviving Entity enforceable against such Surviving Entity in accordance with its terms, subject to customary exceptions and (z) all conditions precedent in this Indenture relating to the transaction or series of transactions have been satisfied.

 

Section 5.02.             Successor Substituted. Upon any consolidation, combination or merger, or any sale, assignment, conveyance, transfer, lease or other disposition of all or substantially all of the property and assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.01 of this Indenture, the Surviving Entity shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such Surviving Entity had been named as the Company herein and thereafter the predecessor Person, except in the case of (x) a lease or (y) any sale, assignment, conveyance, transfer, lease or other disposition to one or more Subsidiaries of the Company, shall be discharged from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

18

 

 

 

Article 6

Default and Remedies

 

Section 6.01.             Events of Default. An “Event of Default” shall occur with respect to the Securities of any series if:

 

(a)            the Company defaults in the payment of the Principal of any Security of such series when the same becomes due and payable at maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or mandatory repurchase, including as a sinking fund installment, or otherwise;

 

(b)            the Company defaults in the payment of interest on any Security of such series when the same becomes due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 30 days;

 

(c)            the Company defaults in the performance of or breaches any other covenant or agreement of the Company in this Indenture with respect to any Security of such series or in the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of which noncompliance by the Company would otherwise be an Event of Default) and such default or breach continues for a period of 90 consecutive days or more after written notice to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of 25% or more in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of all series affected thereby specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder;

 

(d)            a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee, sequestrator (or similar official) of the Company or for any substantial part of its property or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 60 consecutive days;

 

(e)            the Company (i) commences a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consents to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, (ii) consents to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee, sequestrator or similar official of the Company or for all or substantially all of the property and assets of the Company or (iii) effects any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

 

(f)             any other Event of Default established pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to the Securities of such series occurs.

 

Section 6.02.             Acceleration. (a) If an Event of Default other than as described in clauses (d) or (e) of Section 6.01 with respect to the Securities of any series then outstanding occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, except for any series of Securities the Principal of which shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of all such series then outstanding hereunder in respect of which an Event of Default has occurred (all such series voting together as a single class) by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire Principal (or, if the Securities of any such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series established pursuant to Section 2.03) of all Securities of the affected series, and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable.

 

(b)            If an Event of Default described in clause (d) or (e) of Section 6.01 occurs and is continuing, then the Principal amount (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal as may be specified in the terms thereof established pursuant to Section 2.03) of all the Securities then outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall be and become immediately due and payable, without any declaration, notice or other action by any Holder or the Trustee, to the full extent permitted by applicable law.

 

19

 

 

The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the Principal (or, if the Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal as may be specified in the terms thereof established pursuant to Section 2.03) of the Securities of any series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) shall have been so declared or become due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Company shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of each such series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) and the Principal of any and all Securities of each such series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such Principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of each such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover all amounts owing the Trustee under Section 7.07, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture, other than the non-payment of the Principal of and interest on Securities which shall have become due by acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of all the then outstanding Securities of all such series that have been accelerated (voting as a single class), by written notice to the Company and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to all such series (or with respect to all the Securities, as the case may be) and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

 

For all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the Principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared or become due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the Principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such portion of the Principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the Principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

 

Section 6.03.             Other Remedies. If a payment default or an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may pursue, in its own name or as trustee of an express trust, any available remedy by proceeding at law or in equity to collect the payment of Principal of and interest on the Securities of such series or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of such series or this Indenture.

 

The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities or does not produce any of them in the proceeding.

 

Section 6.04.             Waiver of Past Defaults. Subject to Sections 6.02, 6.07 and 9.02, the Holders of at least a majority in Principal amount (or, if the Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal as is then accelerable under Section 6.02) of the outstanding Securities of all series affected (voting as a single class), by notice to the Trustee, may waive an existing Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of Principal of or interest on any Security as specified in clauses (a) or (b) of Section 6.01 or in respect of a covenant or provision of this Indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the Holder of each outstanding Security affected. Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereto.

 

20

 

 

Section 6.05.             Control by Majority. Subject to Sections 7.01 and 7.02(e), the Holders of at least a majority in aggregate Principal amount (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the Principal as is then accelerable under Section 6.02) of the outstanding Securities of all series affected (voting as a single class) may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided, that the Trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture, that may involve the Trustee in personal liability or that the Trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of Holders not joining in the giving of such direction; and provided further, that the Trustee may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any directions received from Holders of Securities pursuant to this Section 6.05.

 

Section 6.06.             Limitation on Suits. No Holder of any Security of any series may institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture or the Securities of such series, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

 

(a)            such Holder has previously given to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

(b)            the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate Principal amount of outstanding Securities of all such series affected shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

(c)            such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to it against any costs, liabilities or expenses to be incurred in compliance with such request;

 

(d)            the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

 

(e)            during such 60-day period, the Holders of a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all such affected series have not given the Trustee a direction that is inconsistent with such written request.

 

A Holder may not use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Holder or to obtain a preference or priority over such other Holder.

 

Section 6.07.             Rights of Holders to Receive Payment. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security to receive payment of Principal of or interest, if any, on such Holder’s Security on or after the respective due dates expressed on such Security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder.

 

Section 6.08.             Collection Suit by Trustee. If an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of any series in payment of Principal or interest specified in clause (a) or (b) of Section 6.01 occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company for the whole amount (or such portion thereof as specified in the terms established pursuant to Section 2.03 of Original Issue Discount Securities) of Principal of, and accrued interest remaining unpaid on, together with interest on overdue Principal of, and, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest on, the Securities of such series, in each case at the rate or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, and such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover all amounts owing the Trustee under Section 7.07.

 

21

 

 

Section 6.09.             Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. The Trustee may file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07) and the Holders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities), its creditors or its property and shall be entitled and empowered to collect and receive any moneys, securities or other property payable or deliverable upon conversion or exchange of the Securities or upon any such claims and to distribute the same, and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it under Section 7.07. Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to empower the Trustee to authorize or consent to, or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder, any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.10.             Application of Proceeds. Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of the Securities of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of Principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities in respect of which moneys have been collected and noting thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series and tenor in reduced Principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of such series and tenor if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07 applicable to the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected;

 

SECOND: In case the Principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;

 

THIRD: In case the Principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for Principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue Principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such moneys shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such Principal and interest or Yield to Maturity, without preference or priority of Principal over interest or Yield to Maturity, or of interest or Yield to Maturity over Principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such Principal and accrued and unpaid interest or Yield to Maturity; and

 

FOURTH: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 6.11.             Restoration of Rights and Remedies. If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then, and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Company, Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

 

22

 

 

Section 6.12.             Undertaking for Costs. In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, in either case in respect to the Securities of any series, a court may require any party litigant in such suit (other than the Trustee) to file an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant (other than the Trustee) in the suit having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by the party litigant. This Section 6.12 does not apply to a suit by a Holder pursuant to Section 6.07, a suit instituted by the Trustee or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in Principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such series.

 

Section 6.13.             Rights and Remedies Cumulative. Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or wrongfully taken Securities in Section 2.08, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

Section 6.14.             Delay or Omission not Waiver. No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article 6 or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

 

Article 7
Trustee

 

Section 7.01.             General. The duties and responsibilities of the Trustee shall be as provided by the Trust Indenture Act and as set forth herein. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties hereunder, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense. Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct or affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Article 7.

 

Section 7.02.             Certain Rights of Trustee. Subject to Trust Indenture Act Sections 315(a) through (d):

 

(a)            the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, Officers’ Certificate, Opinion of Counsel (or both), statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person or persons. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit;

 

(b)            before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers’ Certificate and/or an Opinion of Counsel, which shall conform to Section 10.04 and shall cover such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such certificate or opinion. Subject to Sections 7.01 and 7.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof;

 

23

 

 

(c)            the Trustee may act through its attorneys and agents not regularly in its employ and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent or attorney appointed with due care;

 

(d)            any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officers’ Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any Board Resolution may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company;

 

(e)            the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against any costs, expenses or liabilities that might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction;

 

(f)             the Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith that it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers or for any action it takes or omits to take in accordance with the direction of the Holders in accordance with Section 6.05 relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;

 

(g)            the Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon; and

 

(h)            prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, Officers’ Certificate, Opinion of Counsel, Board Resolution, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, coupon, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate Principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then outstanding; provided that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding.

 

Section 7.03.             Individual Rights of Trustee. The Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or its Affiliates with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. However, the Trustee is subject to Trust Indenture Act Sections 310(b) and 311. For purposes of Trust Indenture Act Section 311(b)(4) and (6), the following terms shall mean:

 

(a)            cash transaction” means any transaction in which full payment for goods or securities sold is made within seven days after delivery of the goods or securities in currency or in checks or other orders drawn upon banks or bankers and payable upon demand; and

 

(b)            self-liquidating paper” means any draft, bill of exchange, acceptance or obligation which is made, drawn, negotiated or incurred by the Company for the purpose of financing the purchase, processing, manufacturing, shipment, storage or sale of goods, wares or merchandise and which is secured by documents evidencing title to, possession of, or a lien upon, the goods, wares or merchandise or the receivables or proceeds arising from the sale of the goods, wares or merchandise previously constituting the security, provided the security is received by the Trustee simultaneously with the creation of the creditor relationship with the Company arising from the making, drawing, negotiating or incurring of the draft, bill of exchange, acceptance or obligation.

 

24

 

 

Section 7.04.             Trustee’s Disclaimer. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities (except the Trustee’s certificate of authentication) shall be taken as statements of the Company and not of the Trustee and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. Neither the Trustee nor any of its agents (a) makes any representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities and (b) shall be accountable for the Company’s use or application of the proceeds from the Securities.

 

Section 7.05.             Notice of Default. If any Default with respect to the Securities of any series occurs and is continuing and if such Default is known to the actual knowledge of a Responsible Officer with the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, the Trustee shall give to each Holder of Securities of such series notice of such Default within 90 days after it occurs to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, unless such Default shall have been cured or waived before the mailing of such notice; provided, however, that, except in the case of a Default in the payment of the Principal of or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Holders.

 

Section 7.06.             Reports by Trustee to Holders. The Trustee shall transmit to Holders such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided pursuant thereto. If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee shall, within 60 days after each May 15 following the date of this Indenture, deliver to Holders a brief report, dated as of such May 15, which complies with the provisions of such Section 313(a).

 

A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Holders, be filed by the Trustee with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed, with the Commission and with the Company. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee when any Securities are listed on any stock exchange.

 

Section 7.07.             Compensation and Indemnity. The Company shall pay to the Trustee such compensation as shall be agreed upon in writing from time to time for its services. The compensation of the Trustee shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a Trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee or such predecessor Trustee. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s or such predecessor Trustee’s agents, counsel and other persons not regularly in their employ.

 

The Company shall indemnify the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee for, and hold them harmless against, any loss or liability or expense incurred by them without negligence or bad faith on their part arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture and the Securities or the issuance of the Securities or of series thereof or the trusts hereunder and the performance of duties under this Indenture and the Securities, including the costs and expenses of defending themselves against or investigating any claim or liability and of complying with any process served upon them or any of their officers in connection with the exercise or performance of any of their powers or duties under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section 7.07, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, in its capacity as Trustee, except money or property held in trust to pay Principal of, and interest on particular Securities.

 

The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or the rejection or termination of this Indenture under bankruptcy law. Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim. Without prejudice to any other rights available to the Trustee under applicable law, if the Trustee renders services and incurs expenses following an Event of Default under Section 6.01(d) or Section 6.01(e) hereof, the parties hereto and the holders by their acceptance of the Securities hereby agree that such expenses are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law.

 

25

 

 

Section 7.08.             Replacement of Trustee. A resignation or removal of the Trustee as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series and appointment of a successor Trustee as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section 7.08.

 

The Trustee may resign as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series at any time by so notifying the Company in writing. The Holders of a majority in Principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any series may remove the Trustee as Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by so notifying the Trustee in writing and may appoint a successor Trustee with respect thereto with the consent of the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series if: (i) the Trustee is no longer eligible under Section 7.11 of this Indenture; (ii) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent; (iii) a receiver or other public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or (iv) the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

 

If the Trustee resigns or is removed as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee with respect thereto. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in Principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such series may appoint a successor Trustee in respect of such Securities to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company. If the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series does not deliver its written acceptance required by Section 7.09 within 30 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of a majority in Principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect thereto.

 

The Company shall give notice of any resignation and any removal of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series and each appointment of a successor Trustee in respect of the Securities of such series to all Holders of Securities of such series. Each notice shall include the name of the successor Trustee and the address of its Corporate Trust Office.

 

Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series pursuant to this Section 7.08 and Section 7.09, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.07 shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee.

 

Section 7.09.             Acceptance of Appointment by Successor. In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor Trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges and subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.07, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor Trustee all the rights, powers and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

26

 

 

In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor Trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor Trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates, (2) if the retiring Trustee is not retiring with respect to all Securities, shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein and each such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates.

 

Upon request of any such successor Trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor Trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in the first or second preceding paragraph, as the case may be.

 

No successor Trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor Trustee shall be eligible under this Article and qualified under Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 7.10.             Successor Trustee By Merger, Etc. If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation or national banking association, the resulting, surviving or transferee corporation or national banking association without any further act shall be the successor Trustee with the same effect as if the successor Trustee had been named as the Trustee herein.

 

Section 7.11.             Eligibility. This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of Trust Indenture Act Section 310(a). The Trustee shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition.

 

Section 7.12.             Money Held in Trust. The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law and except for money held in trust under Article 8 of this Indenture.

 

27

 

 

Article 8
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Unclaimed Moneys

 

Section 8.01.             Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. If at any time (a) (i) all Securities of any series issued that have been authenticated and delivered have been delivered by the Company to the Trustee for cancellation (other than Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.08); or (ii) all the Securities of any series issued that have not been delivered by the Company to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by such Trustee in the Company’s name and at the Company’s expense, the Company shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in cash (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Company in accordance with Section 8.04) or U.S. Government Obligations, maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure (without consideration of the reinvestment of such interest) the availability of cash, or a combination thereof, sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.08) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including Principal and interest due or to become due on or prior to such date of maturity or redemption as the case may be; (b) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums then due and payable under this Indenture; and (c) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent under this Indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture pursuant to this Section 8.01 have been complied with, then this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (i) rights of registration of transfer and exchange of securities of such series, and the Company’s right of optional redemption, if any, (ii) substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (iii) rights of holders to receive payments of Principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the holders to receive mandatory sinking fund payments, if any, (iv) the rights, obligations and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and (v) the rights of the Securityholders of such series as beneficiaries hereof with respect to the property so deposited with the Trustee payable to all or any of them), and the Trustee, on demand of the Company accompanied by an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel and at the cost and expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging such satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series; provided that the rights of Holders of the Securities to receive amounts in respect of Principal of and interest on the Securities held by them shall not be delayed longer than required by then-applicable mandatory rules or policies of any securities exchange upon which the Securities are listed. The Company agrees to reimburse the Trustee for any costs or expenses thereafter reasonably and properly incurred and to compensate the Trustee for any services thereafter reasonably and properly rendered by the Trustee in connection with this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

 

Section 8.02.             Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities. Subject to Section 8.04, all moneys (including U.S. Government Obligations and the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.01, Section 8.05 or Section 8.06 shall be held in trust and applied by it to the payment, either directly or through any paying agent to the Holders of the particular Securities of such series for the payment or redemption of which such moneys have been deposited with the Trustee, of all sums due and to become due thereon for Principal and interest; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

Section 8.03.             Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent. In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, all moneys then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities shall, upon demand of the Company, be repaid to it or paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

 

Section 8.04.             Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years. Any moneys deposited with or paid to the Trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the Principal of or interest on any Security of any series and not applied but remaining unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such Principal or interest shall have become due and payable, shall, upon the written request of the Company and unless otherwise required by mandatory provisions of applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property law, be repaid to the Company by the Trustee for such series or such paying agent, and the Holder of the Security of such series shall, unless otherwise required by mandatory provisions of applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property laws, thereafter look only to the Company for any payment which such Holder may be entitled to collect, and all liability of the Trustee or any paying agent with respect to such moneys shall thereupon cease.

 

28

 

 

Section 8.05.             Defeasance and Discharge of Indenture. The Company shall be deemed to have paid and shall be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the Securities of any series, after the deposit referred to in clause (i) hereof has been made, and the provisions of this Indenture shall no longer be in effect with respect to the Securities of such series (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except as to: (a) rights of Holders of the Securities of such series to receive payments of Principal thereof, premium thereto, and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor, (b) the Company’s obligations with respect to the issuance of temporary Securities and the registration of transfer with respect to the Securities of such series, the Company’s right of optional redemption, substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities of such series and the maintenance of an office or agency for payment for security payments held in trust pursuant to clause (i) hereof, (c) the rights, obligations and immunities of the Trustee hereunder, and (d) the defeasance provisions contained in Article 8 of this Indenture; provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

(i)            with reference to this Section 8.05 the Company irrevocably has deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another qualifying trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 7.11) as trust funds in trust, for the purposes of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series, (A) money in an amount, (B) U.S. Government Obligations which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide not later than one day before the due date of any payment referred to in subclause (x) or (y) of this clause (i), or (C) a combination thereof, in each case sufficient, in the written opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, without consideration of reinvestment and after payment of all federal, state and local taxes or other charges and assessments in respect thereof, and which shall be applied by the Trustee to pay and discharge (x) all of the Principal of, premium, if any, and each installment of interest on the outstanding Securities of such series on the maturity or due dates thereof or if the Company has made irrevocable arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee, the redemption date, as the case may be, and (y) any mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments applicable to the Securities of such series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of Securities of such series and the Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

(ii)            the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that, under then applicable U.S. federal income tax law, beneficial owners of Securities of such series will not recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the Company’s exercise of its option under this Section 8.05 and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

 

(iii)            no Default under either clause (d) or clause (e) of Section 6.01 shall have occurred and be continuing at such time;

 

(iv)            if at such time the Securities of such series are listed on a national securities exchange, the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Securities of such series will not be delisted as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge;

 

(v)            the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent to the defeasance and discharge under this Section 8.05 have been complied with; and

 

(vi)            if the Securities of such series are to be redeemed prior to the final maturity thereof (other than from mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments), notice of such redemption shall have been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made.

 

29

 

 

Section 8.06.             Defeasance of Certain Obligations. The Company may omit to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth in, and this Indenture will no longer be in effect with respect to, any covenant established pursuant to Section 2.03(s) and clause (c) and clause (f) (with respect to any covenants established pursuant to Section 2.03(s)) of Section 6.01 shall be deemed not to constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any series, if:

 

(a)            with reference to this Section 8.06, the Company has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another qualifying trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 7.11) as trust funds in trust, for the purposes of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefits of the Holders of the Securities of such series, (i) money in an amount, (ii) U.S. Government Obligations which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide not later than one day before the due date of any payment referred to in subclause (x) or (y) of this clause (a), or (iii) a combination thereof, in each case sufficient, in the written opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, without consideration of reinvestment and after payment of all federal, state and local taxes or other charges and assessments in respect thereof, and which shall be applied by the Trustee to pay and discharge (x) all of the Principal of, premium, if any, and each installment of interest on the outstanding Securities of such series on the maturity or due dates thereof or if the Company has made irrevocable arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee, the redemption date, as the case may be, and (y) any mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments applicable to the Securities of such series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of the Securities of such series and the Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

(b)            the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that beneficial owners of Securities of such series will not recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the Company’s exercise of its option under this Section 8.06 and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred;

 

(c)            no Default with respect to the outstanding Securities of such series shall have occurred and be continuing at the time of such deposit immediately after giving effect to such deposit;

 

(d)            if at such time the Securities of such series are listed on a national securities exchange, the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Securities of such series will not be delisted as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge;

 

(e)            the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent to the defeasance under this Section have been complied with; and

 

(f)             if the Securities of such series are to be redeemed prior to the final maturity thereof (other than from mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments), notice of such redemption shall have been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made.

 

Section 8.07.             Reinstatement. If the Trustee or paying agent is unable to apply any monies or U.S. Government Obligations in accordance with Article 8 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this Article until such time as the Trustee or paying agent is permitted to apply all such monies or U.S. Government Obligations in accordance with Article 8; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of Principal of or interest on any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the monies or U.S. Government Obligations held by the Trustee or paying agent.

 

30

 

 

Section 8.08.             Indemnity. The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee, collectively for purposes of this Section 8.08 and Section 8.02, the “Trustee”) against any tax, fee or other charge, imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 8.01, 8.05 or 8.06 or the principal or interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of the Securities.

 

Section 8.09.             Excess Funds. Anything in this Article 8 to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon request of the Company, any money or U.S. Government Obligations (or other property and any proceeds therefrom) held by it as provided in Section 8.01, 8.05 or 8.06 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect a discharge or defeasance, as applicable, in accordance with this Article 8.

 

Section 8.10.             Qualifying Trustee. Any trustee appointed pursuant to Section 8.05 or 8.06 for the purpose of holding money or U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to such Sections shall be appointed under an agreement in form acceptable to the Trustee and shall provide to the Trustee a certificate, upon which certificate the Trustee shall be entitled to conclusively rely, that all conditions precedent provided for herein to the related defeasance have been complied with. In no event shall the Trustee be liable for any acts or omissions of said trustee.

 

Article 9
Amendments, Supplements and Waivers

 

Section 9.01.             Without Consent of Holders. The Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of any series without notice to or the consent of any Holder:

 

(a)            to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in this Indenture;

 

(b)            to comply with Article 5;

 

(c)            to maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

(d)            to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder with respect to the Securities of any or all series by a successor Trustee and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 7.09;

 

(e)            to establish the form or forms or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Section 2.03;

 

(f)             to provide for uncertificated Securities and to make all appropriate changes for such purpose;

 

(g)            to conform any provision to the applicable corresponding provision set forth in the offering document for the offering of such series of Securities; and

 

(h)            to make any change that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any Holder.

 

Section 9.02.             With Consent of Holders. Subject to Sections 6.04 and 6.07, without prior notice to any Holders, the Company and the Trustee may amend this Indenture and the Securities of any series with the written consent of the Holders of a majority in Principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each series affected by such amendment (all such series voting together as a single class), and the Holders of a majority in Principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each series affected thereby (all such series voting together as a single class) by written notice to the Trustee may waive future compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

 

31

 

 

Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 9.02, without the consent of each Holder affected thereby, an amendment or waiver, including a waiver pursuant to Section 6.04, may not:

 

(a)            change the stated maturity of the Principal of, or any sinking fund obligation or any installment of interest on, such Holder’s Security,

 

(b)            reduce the Principal amount thereof or the rate of interest thereon (including any amount in respect of original issue discount);

 

(c)            reduce the above stated percentage of outstanding Securities the consent of whose holders is necessary to modify or amend the Indenture with respect to the Securities of the relevant series; and

 

(d)            reduce the percentage in Principal amount of outstanding Securities of the relevant series the consent of whose Holders is required for any supplemental indenture or for any waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain Defaults and their consequences provided for in this Indenture.

 

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of this Indenture which has expressly been included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, or which modifies the rights of Holders of Securities of such series with respect to such covenant or provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of any Holder under this Section 9.02 to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.

 

After an amendment, supplement or waiver under this Section 9.02 becomes effective, the Company shall give to the Holders affected thereby a notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. The Company will mail supplemental indentures to Holders upon request. Any failure of the Company to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

Section 9.03.             Revocation and Effect of Consent. Until an amendment or waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the Security of the consenting Holder, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to its Security or portion of its Security. Such revocation shall be effective only if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment, supplement or waiver becomes effective. An amendment, supplement or waiver shall become effective with respect to any Securities affected thereby on receipt by the Trustee of written consents from the requisite Holders of outstanding Securities affected thereby.

 

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date (which may be not less than five nor more than 60 days prior to the solicitation of consents) for the purpose of determining the Holders of the Securities of any series affected entitled to consent to any amendment, supplement or waiver. If a record date is fixed, then, notwithstanding the immediately preceding paragraph, those Persons who were such Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies) and only those Persons shall be entitled to consent to such amendment, supplement or waiver or to revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such Persons continue to be such Holders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 90 days after such record date.

 

After an amendment, supplement or waiver becomes effective with respect to the Securities of any series affected thereby, it shall bind every Holder of such Securities unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (d) of Section 9.02. In case of an amendment or waiver of the type described in clauses (a) through (d) of Section 9.02, the amendment or waiver shall bind each such Holder who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security that evidences the same indebtedness as the Security of the consenting Holder.

 

32

 

 

Section 9.04.             Notation on or Exchange of Securities. If an amendment, supplement or waiver changes the terms of any Security, the Trustee may require the Holder thereof to deliver it to the Trustee. The Trustee may place an appropriate notation on the Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder and the Trustee may place an appropriate notation on any Security of such series thereafter authenticated. Alternatively, if the Company or the Trustee so determines, the Company in exchange for the Security shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a new Security of the same series and tenor that reflects the changed terms.

 

Section 9.05.             Trustee to Sign Amendments, Etc. The Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of any amendment, supplement or waiver authorized pursuant to this Article 9 is authorized or permitted by this Indenture, stating that all requisite consents have been obtained or that no consents are required and stating that such supplemental indenture constitutes the legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, subject to customary exceptions. The Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, execute any such amendment, supplement or waiver that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Section 9.06.             Conformity with Trust Indenture Act. Every supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 9 shall conform to the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect.

 

Article 10
Miscellaneous

 

Section 10.01.          Trust Indenture Act of 1939. This Indenture shall incorporate and be governed by the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are required to be part of and to govern indentures qualified under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 10.02.          Notices. Any notice or communication shall be sufficiently given if written and (a) if delivered in person, when received or (b) if mailed by first class mail, 5 days after mailing, or (c) as between the Company and the Trustee if sent by facsimile transmission, when transmission is confirmed, in each case addressed as follows:

 

if to the Company:

 

Entera Bio Ltd.

37 Walnut Street, Suite 300

Wellesley Hills, MA 02481

Facsimile: [       ]

Attention: General Counsel

 

if to the Trustee:

 

[                    ]

[                    ]

[                    ]

Facsimile: [         ]

Attention: [         ]

 

The Company or the Trustee by written notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

 

33

 

 

Any notice or communication shall be sufficiently given to Holders by mailing to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security Register. Notice mailed shall be sufficiently given if so mailed within the time prescribed. Copies of any such communication or notice to a Holder shall also be mailed to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

 

Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Holder or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Holders. Except as otherwise provided in this Indenture, if a notice or communication is mailed in the manner provided in this Section 10.02, it is duly given, whether or not the addressee receives it.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

 

In case it shall be impracticable to give notice as herein contemplated, then such notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient notification for every purpose hereunder.

 

Section 10.03.          Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent. Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

 

(a)            an Officers’ Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

 

(b)            an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

 

Section 10.04.          Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion. Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate required by Section 4.04) shall include:

 

(a)            a statement that each person signing such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition and the definitions herein relating thereto;

 

(b)            a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statement or opinion contained in such certificate or opinion is based;

 

(c)            a statement that, in the opinion of each such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

(d)            a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of each such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with; provided, however, that, with respect to matters of fact, an Opinion of Counsel may rely on an Officers’ Certificate or certificates of public officials.

 

Section 10.05.          Evidence of Ownership. The Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may deem and treat the person in whose name any Security shall be registered upon the Security Register for such series as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the Principal of and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

34

 

 

Section 10.06.          Rules by Trustee, Paying Agent or Registrar. The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or at a meeting of Holders. The Paying Agent or Registrar may make reasonable rules for its functions.

 

Section 10.07.          Payment Date Other Than a Business Day. Except as otherwise provided with respect to a series of Securities, if any date for payment of Principal or interest on any Security shall not be a Business Day at any place of payment, then payment of Principal of or interest on such Security, as the case may be, need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day at any place of payment with the same force and effect as if made on such date and no interest shall accrue in respect of such payment for the period from and after such date.

 

Section 10.08.          Governing Law. The laws of the State of New York shall govern this Indenture and the Securities.

 

Section 10.09.          No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements. This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture or loan or debt agreement of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture or agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

 

Section 10.10.          Successors. All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successors. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successors.

 

Section 10.11.          Duplicate Originals. The parties may sign any number of copies of this Indenture. Each signed copy shall be an original, but all of them together represent the same agreement.

 

Section 10.12.          Separability. In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

Section 10.13.          Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. The Table of Contents and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms and provisions hereof.

 

Section 10.14.          Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers and Directors of Company Exempt from Individual Liability. No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto, or in any Security, or because of any indebtedness evidenced thereby, shall be had against any incorporator, as such or against any past, present or future stockholder, officer, director or employee, as such, of the Company or of any successor, either directly or through the Company or any successor, under any rule of law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise, all such liability being expressly waived and released by the acceptance of the Securities by the holders thereof and as part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

 

35

 

 

Section 10.15.          Judgment Currency. The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of any series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a Business Day, then, to the extent permitted by applicable law, the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.

 

Section 10.16.          Waiver of Jury Trial. EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE SECURITIES OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

Section 10.17.          Force Majeure. In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

 

36

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, all as of the date first written above.

 

  ENTERA BIO LTD.
as the Company
   
  By:
    Name:
    Title:

 

  [                              ]
as the Trustee
   
  By:                    
    Name:
    Title:
 


 

Exhibit 4.2

 

 

 

Entera Bio Ltd.

 

as the Company

 

and

 

[              ]

 

as Trustee




Subordinated Indenture

 

Dated as of [     ], [      ]

 



 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS



 

  Page
 

Article 1

Definitions And Incorporation By Reference

Section 1.01.   Definitions 1
Section 1.02.   Other Definitions 4
Section 1.03.   Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act 4
Section 1.04.   Rules of Construction 4

Article 2

The Securities

Section 2.01.   Form and Dating 5
Section 2.02.   Execution and Authentication 5
Section 2.03.   Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series 6
Section 2.04.   Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest 7
Section 2.05.   Registrar and Paying Agent; Agents Generally 8
Section 2.06.   Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust 8
Section 2.07.   Transfer and Exchange 9
Section 2.08.   Replacement Securities 10
Section 2.09.   Outstanding Securities 10
Section 2.10.   Temporary Securities 11
Section 2.11.   Cancellation 11
Section 2.12.   CUSIP Numbers 11
Section 2.13.   Defaulted Interest 11
Section 2.14.   Series May Include Tranches 11

Article 3

Redemption

Section 3.01.   Applicability of Article 12
Section 3.02.   Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions 12
Section 3.03.   Payment of Securities Called for Redemption 13
Section 3.04.   Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption 13
Section 3.05.   Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds 13

Article 4

Covenants

Section 4.01.   Payment of Securities 15
Section 4.02.   Maintenance of Office or Agency 15
Section 4.03.   Securityholders’ Lists 15
Section 4.04.   Certificate to Trustee 16
Section 4.05.   Reports by the Company 16
Section 4.06.   Additional Amounts 16

Article 5

Successor Corporation

Section 5.01.   When Company May Merge, Etc. 16
Section 5.02.   Successor Substituted 17

Article 6

Default and Remedies

Section 6.01.   Events of Default 17
Section 6.02.   Acceleration 17
Section 6.03.   Other Remedies 18
Section 6.04.   Waiver of Past Defaults 18
Section 6.05.   Control by Majority 19
Section 6.06.   Limitation on Suits 19

 

 

 

 

Section 6.07.   Rights of Holders to Receive Payment 19
Section 6.08.   Collection Suit by Trustee 19
Section 6.09.   Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 19
Section 6.10.   Application of Proceeds 20
Section 6.11.   Restoration of Rights and Remedies 20
Section 6.12.   Undertaking for Costs 20
Section 6.13.   Section 6.13. Rights and Remedies Cumulative 20
Section 6.14.   Delay or Omission not Waiver 21

Article 7

Trustee

Section 7.01.   General 21
Section 7.02.   Certain Rights of Trustee 21
Section 7.03.   Individual Rights of Trustee 22
Section 7.04.   Trustee’s Disclaimer 22
Section 7.05.   Notice of Default 22
Section 7.06.   Reports by Trustee to Holders 22
Section 7.07.   Compensation and Indemnity 23
Section 7.08.   Replacement of Trustee 23
Section 7.09.   Acceptance of Appointment by Successor 24
Section 7.10.   Successor Trustee By Merger, Etc. 24
Section 7.11.   Eligibility 24
Section 7.12.   Money Held in Trust 24

Article 8

Satisfaction And Discharge of Indenture; Unclaimed Moneys

Section 8.01.   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 25
Section 8.02.   Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities 25
Section 8.03.   Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent 25
Section 8.04.   Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years 25
Section 8.05.   Defeasance and Discharge of Indenture 26
Section 8.06.   Defeasance of Certain Obligations 26
Section 8.07.   Reinstatement 27
Section 8.08.   Indemnity 27
Section 8.09.   Excess Funds 28
Section 8.10.   Qualifying Trustee 28

Article 9

Amendments, Supplements and Waivers

Section 9.01.   Without Consent of Holders 28
Section 9.02.   With Consent of Holders 28
Section 9.03.   Revocation and Effect of Consent 29
Section 9.04.   Notation on or Exchange of Securities 29
Section 9.05.   Trustee to Sign Amendments, Etc. 29
Section 9.06.   Conformity with Trust Indenture Act 30

Article 10

Miscellaneous

Section 10.01.   Trust Indenture Act of 1939 30
Section 10.02.   Notices 30
Section 10.03.   Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent 30
Section 10.04.   Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion 31
Section 10.05.   Evidence of Ownership 31
Section 10.06.   Rules by Trustee, Paying Agent or Registrar 31
Section 10.07.   Payment Date Other Than a Business Day 31
Section 10.08.   Governing Law 31
Section 10.09.   No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements 31
Section 10.10.   Successors 31

 

 

 

 

Section 10.11.   Duplicate Originals 31
Section 10.12.   Separability 31
Section 10.13.   Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. 31
Section 10.14.   Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers and Directors of Company Exempt from Individual Liability 32
Section 10.15.   Judgment Currency 32
Section 10.16.   Waiver of Jury Trial 32
Section 10.17.   Force Majeure 32

Article 11

Subordination

Section 11.01.   Agreement to Subordinate 32
Section 11.02.   Payments to Securityholders 32
Section 11.03.   Subrogation 34
Section 11.04.   Authorization by Securityholders 34
Section 11.05.   Notice to Trustee 34
Section 11.06.   Trustee’s Relation to Senior Indebtedness 35
Section 11.07.   No Impairment of Subordination 35

 

 

 

 

SUBORDINATED INDENTURE, dated as of [      ,       ], between Entera Bio Ltd., an Israeli company, as the Company, and [          ], as Trustee.

 

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

 

WHEREAS, the Company has duly authorized the issue from time to time of its subordinated debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration thereof, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

 

NOW, THEREFORE:

 

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Company and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities or of any and all series thereof as follows:

 

Article 1
Definitions And Incorporation By Reference

 

Section 1.01.   Definitions.

 

Affiliate” of any Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling”, “controlled by” and “under common control with”) when used with respect to any Person means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise.

 

Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, transfer agent or Authenticating Agent.

 

Board Resolution” means one or more resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or any authorized committee thereof, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary to have been duly adopted and to be in full force and effect on the date of certification, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means any day, other than a Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close (i) with respect to any Security the interest on which is based on the offered quotations in the interbank Eurodollar market for dollar deposits in London or in The City of New York or (ii) with respect to Securities denominated in a specified currency other than United States dollars, in the principal financial center of the country of the specified currency.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to Article 5 of this Indenture and thereafter means the successor.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be administered, which office is, at the date of this Indenture, located at [      ].

 

Default” means any event that is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Company pursuant to Section 2.03 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Registered Global Securities of that series.

 

 

 

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.